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MAG Kelas Pagi dan Sore September 2011


Petunjuk.

1) Peserta membentuk Kelompok,  terdiri dari tiga orang.

2) Peserta diharuskan memiliki powerpoin  materi kuliah dan modul yg disiapkan.

3) Peserta membentuk kelompok, 1 kelompok terdiri dari tiga orang.

4) Mengawali tugas  kelompok, anda diharuskan memilih salah satu tugas baca dari  halaman Manajemen Agribisnis di blog ini, temukan halaman yg dimaksud.

5) Laporkan anggota kelompok anda, nama dan no mahasiswa.

SEMOGA ANDA BERHASIL

Powerpoin

Pertanyaan atas artikel  yg diberikan: Blog Pertanyaan Untuk Wirakoperasi Susu Desember 2011

MAG Powerpoin Oktober 2011

Pedoman Tugas Sampai Midsemester. Blog Soal MAG Pagi November 2011

Pedoman Tugas MAG Peserta Sore (Ekstensi) blog-soal-mag-sore-november-2011

Berikut Tugas Midsemester  Peserta Pagi.  Blog Midsemeseter MAG Pagi Desember 2011

SOAL AKHIR SEMESTER KELAS PAGI Soal MAG Januari 2012

Agustus 1, 2011 - Posted by | kompetensi, krisis enerji, strategy, Tanggung jawab sosial, Uncategorized

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  1. Short term task group MAG
    Commodities: palm oil
    Members of the group:
    Derry Hariansyah: (C1B009012)
    Miftah FARID: (C1BOO9046)
    Najla: (C1BOO09011)

    Classification / Classification of Commodities Oil Palm
    Oil palm is a crop plantation / industrial form of tree trunks straight from the family Palmae. Tropical plants are known as a producer of vegetable oil that comes from America. Brazil is believed to be a place where the first oil palm growing. From the place of origin, this plant spreads to Africa, Equatorial America, Southeast Asia, and South Pacific. Palm seed was first planted in Indonesia in 1984 came from Mauritius, Africa. The first oil palm plantation built in Tanahitam, Upper North Sumatra by Schadt (Germany) in 1911.
    Classification of palm oil is as follows:
    Division: Spermatophyta
    Sub Division: Angiospermae
    Class: Dicotyledonae
    Family: Palmaceae
    Sub family: Cocoideae
    Genus: Elaeis
    Species: Elaeis guineensis Jacq
    Yielding varieties are varieties of Dura as a female parent and Pisifera as a male parent. The results of these crosses have the quality and quantity are better. Yielding varieties from crosses among others: Deli Dura Marihat (descendants 434B x 34C; 425B x 435B; 34C x 43C), Deli Dura D. Sinumbah, Pabatu, Bah Jambi, Tinjowan, D. Ilir (descendants of 533 x 533; 544 x 571), Dura Dumpy Pabatu, Deli Dura G. Bayu and G Malays (from Garden Selections G. Bayu dang. Melayu), Pisifera D. Sinumbah and Bah Jambi (derived from the Yangambi), Pisifera Marihat (from Cameroon), Pisifera SP 540T (derived from the Congo and planted in Sei Pancur).
    Some features that can be used to mark the sprouts that are categorized well and deserve to be planted as follows:
    • radicle yellowish color, while the whitish plumula
    • Size radicle longer than plumula
    • Growth of radicle and plumula straight and opposite
    • Maximum radicle length of 5 cm, whereas plumula 3 cm.
    Palm oil products as food quality has two aspects. The first aspect relates to levels and quality of fatty acids, moisture and dirt content. The second aspect relates to taste, aroma and clarity and purity of the product. Prime quality palm oil (SQ, Special Quality) containing fatty acid (FFA, Free Fatty Acid) not more than 2% at the time of shipment. Standard quality palm oil contains no more than 5% FFA. After processing, palm oil quality will produce a yield of 22.1% – 22.2% (highest) and free fatty acid content of 1.7% – 2.1% (lowest).
    The term quality of palm oil can be divided into two meanings, first, completely pure and not mixed with other vegetable oils. Palm oil quality can be determined by assessing the physical properties, ie by measuring the melting point and saponification numbers of iodine numbers. Second, the notion of quality based on the size of the palm. In this case the requirement of quality is measured based on the specifications of international quality standards which include levels of ALB, water, dirt, ferrous metal, copper metal, peroxide, and the size of the bleaching. Needs of quality oil palm are used as raw materials of food and non food industries each is different. Therefore the authenticity, purity, freshness, and hygiene aspects should be emphasized. The low quality of palm oil is determined by many factors. These factors may directly stem from the nature of the tree, post harvest handling, or error during processing and transport. In addition, there are several factors that directly related to the quality standards of palm oil as below:
    • Free Fatty Acid (FFA)
    (As palmitic)
    • Moisture% impurities (M & I)
    • Peroxide value
    • Iodine value
    • dobbies
    • Melting Point
    • Cloud Point
    • M. Pt (AOCS Cc3-25)
    • Colour (5 1 / 4 “Lovibond Cell)
    • Saponifiable Matter
    • Dirt
    • Fibre
    • Profat
    Of the several factors related to palm oil quality standards, the results obtained from palm oil processing, as below:
    • Crude Palm Oil
    • Crude Palm stearin
    • RBD Palm Oil
    • RBD Olein
    • RBD stearin
    • Palm Kernel Oil
    • Palm Kernel Fatty Acid
    • Palm Kernel
    • Palm Kernel Expeller (PKE)
    • Palm Cooking Oil
    • Refined Palm Oil (RPO)
    • Refined bleached Deodorised Olein (ROL)
    • Refined bleached Deodorised stearin (RPS)
    • Palm Kernel Pellet
    • Palm Kernel Shell Charcoal
    In addition to quality standards in accordance with the Directorate General of Plantation following standards of good quality crude palm oil (according to Standard Production SP 10-1975):
    a. minimum oil content of 48% means-testing of AP-SMP 13-1975
    b. 8.5% maximum moisture content testing of SP-way SMP-7-1975
    c. 4% maximum contamination testing of SP-way SMP-31-1975
    d. split core levels of 15% to test SP-SMP-31-1975.

    Use of Commodity Oil Palm
    Palm oil is very beneficial, ranging from the food industry to the chemical industry. More data about products and use of palm oil can be dolihat in the table below:
    Share of Production tables and the World Vegetable Oil Consumption
    Use of Information
    The food industry Butter, shortening, chocolate, additives, ice cream, animal feed, cooking oil.
    Medicinal products and cosmetic creams, shampoos, lotions, pomade, vitamins and beta carotene.
    Heavy and light industry Leather industry (to make the skin smooth and supple and resistant
    against high pressure or high temperatures), cold rolling and fluxing agent in the silver industry, as well as material separation of cobalt and copper materials in the metals industry.
    Chemical industry chemicals used for detergent, soap, and oil. The rest – the rest of the palm oil industry, can be used as boiler fuel, furniture polish ingredients, wine materials.

    In addition to oil, palm bunches pulp is a source of fertilizer potassium and potential for processing into organic fertilizer through fermentation (composting) with the addition of aerobic microbes that will enrich the natural fertilizer produced. Oil palm empty fruit bunches (TKKS) reached 23% of the total utilization of oil palm waste as a
    alternative organic fertilizer so as to provide other benefits from an economic standpoint. For palm oil, can save the use of synthetic fertilizers by up to 50%. There are several alternative utilization TKKS to do, namely as compost, an organic material that has undergone a process of fermentation or decomposition by microorganisms. Compost TKKS has several beneficial properties, among others:
    • Improve the structure of argillaceous soil becomes lighter.
    • Assist the solubility of nutrients necessary for plant growth.
    • Characteristically homogeneous and reduce risk as carriers of plant pests.
    • It is a fertilizer that is not easily washed away by water that seeped in the soil.
    • Can be applied in any season.
    In addition to the compost as fertilizer potassium TKKS also because it has a bunch of ash content of 30-40% K2O, P2O5 7%, 9% CaO, and 3% MgO. It also contains micro-nutrients ie 1200 ppm Fe, 1,000 ppm Mn, 400 ppm Zn, and 100 ppm Cu. Other functions also as a fiber material TKKS for filler car seats and mattresses, polipot, etc..
    • tree bark and palm oil can be extracted for Vitamin E
    • The trunk can be used as “Fiber Board” for the raw materials of furniture, chairs, tables, cabinets and so on.
    • grounds remaining bunches / plant residual waste can be used as powder fillers mattresses, cushions, and so on.
    Characteristics Consumption / Utilization of Palm Oil and Commodity Ikutannya
    Aside from being a source of palm oil, palm oil derivative products there are still many benefits and very prospective to be more developed, among others:
    1. Derivative products. Derivative products other than oil palm, can be produced margarine, shortening, Vanaspati (Vegetable ghee), Ice Creams, Bakery fats, Instance Noodle, Soap and Detergent, Cocoa Butter Extender, Chocolate and Coatings, Specialty Fats, Soap Dry Mixes, Sugar Confectionary, Biscuit Cream Fats, Filled Milk, Lubrication, Oils Textiles and Bio Diesel. Especially for biodiesel, the demand for these products in the next few years will increase, especially with the implementation of policies in several European countries and Japan to use renewable energy.
    2. Palm Oil Derivative Products Inti. Of derivative products can be produced palm kernel oil Shortening, Cocoa Butter Substitute, Specialty Fats, Ice Cream, Coffee Whitener / Cream, Sugar Confectionary, Biscuit Cream Fats, Filled Mild, Imitation Cream, Soap, Detergent, Shampoo, and Cosmetics.
    3. Oleochemicals palm oil derivative products. Of palm oil derivative products in the form of methyl esters can be produced Oleochemical, Plastic, Textile Processing, Metal Processing, Lubricants, emulsifiers, Detergent, Glicerine, Cosmetic, Explosives, Pharmaceutical Products and Food Protective Coatings.
    From these images can be submitted that the prospects for palm oil is still very widespread, not only for the fulfillment of palm cooking oil, but also for the needs of their products. To further enhance the competitiveness of palm oil products and derivatives in order to have more competitiveness, integration since the handling of planning activities, on-farm activities, off-farm, support facilities and infrastructure and supporting services are indispensable.

    Commodity Oil Palm Production Process
    A. Nurseries
    Seeding is the beginning of field activities must begin no later than one year prior to planting in the field. The usual standards, the capacity of 1 ha of oil palm nurseries can provide seedlings to the garden area of ​​71 ha. Location nurseries should receive attention, especially things as follows:
    • close to the water source
    • free standing water or flooding
    • close supervision, easily accessible
    • not far from the area to be planted
    • not too far from the source soil (top soil) to fill in polybags.
    To obtain seeds from the seed can be done by working alone or order to the official producer of palm oil seeds that have been appointed by the government. Seeking activities of oil palm seedlings begins with seed selection, mengecambahkan, sow, and membibitkannya.

    Seedbed
    Nursery aims to obtain a uniform seedling growth before being transferred to the nursery. Seedbed is usually selected medium sand or sandy soil. Seedbed can be done in two ways, namely in the form of beds or polybags. Here are the steps
    Nursery:
    1). Watering is done twice a day unless there is rain 7-8 mm.
    2). Weeds removed / revoked or sprayed with herbicides every 3 months. Weeding done 2-3 times a month.
    3). The bad seeds should be discarded
    Fertilization is done several times during the nursery, complete as shown in Table below:
    Table Age and Type of Fertilizer Used In Nursery
    Fertilizer Dose / Period Age
    Urea 0.2% 3-4 lt/100 seed 4-5 weeks
    Urea 0.2% 4 – 5lt/100 seed 6-7 weeks
    Rustica 15.15.6.4 1 g / seed 8-16 weeks
    Rustica 12.12.17.2 1 g / seed 8-16 weeks
    Sources: Agribusiness Series, Palm, Cultivation and Processing, Self-Help Publishers Penebar

    • Seeding System
    Basically there are two breeding systems of breeding system doubles (double stage system) and a single breeding systems (single stage system). On the application of multiple stage systems, planting seedlings performed twice. The first stage is called preliminary breeding, the sprouts grown by using a small plastic polybags to 3-month-old seedlings, then the second stage of the seedlings are planted into the main nursery menggunakanplastik large polybags for 9 months. In single-stage nursery system, seedlings planted directly in plastic polybags of up to 12 months old without having grown in small plastic polybags. In principle any system chosen the same goal, namely to produce quality seeds with high durability and ability to adapt to a large seedling mortality factors in nurseries and after field can be suppressed.
    The work done on the nursery include:
    1) Preparation of initial seeding (0-3 months), covering the work: land preparation and leveling of land, procurement of equipment and materials, manufacture of shade, making irrigation and planting.
    2) Making a major breeding (3-9 months), covering the work: land preparation and leveling of land, procurement of equipment and materials, removal of plants from small to large plastic plastic, spacing, etc..
    3) Maintenance of plants include: fertilizing, watering, pest and disease control, weeding, and seed selection.

    B. Opening of Land and Land Preparation
    Oil palm plantations could be built in former forest areas, areas used reeds, or a former plantation. These areas have different topography. However, to note in the surface area of ​​plantations is still preserved topsoil. In addition, should pay attention to the sequence of work, tools, and implementation techniques. Before clearing land in advance to identify existing vegetation on
    land. From the existing data can then be determined whether the clearing is done manually, the manual – mechanical or mechanically only. Clearing forests for palm oil plantations in the area of ​​reeds can be done by mechanical means and khemis, mechanically done by plowing and harrowing, it khemis done by spraying weeds with poison, among others Dalapon or Glyphospate. The opening of oil palm can also be by way of conversion of the open area of ​​the former plantation estates others.
    Land clearing methods should be made to land clearing without burning, because by burning the forest is prohibited by the government with the issuance of Decree No. DG Plantation. 38 of 1995, concerning the prohibition of burning forests. Besides the reason to use this method are:
    • maintain soil fertility,
    • ensure the return of nutrients,
    • prevent surface soil erosion, and
    • help conserve the environment.
    Stages for land clearing are as follows: cleared the pilot, mengimas, cutting, merancek, making the stakes of the head and clean lines. While the stage for land preparation are: terracing and manufacture of the fort (embankment) and rorak continuous. Making drainage channels, planting cover crops (cover crop), and the manufacture of road transport.

    C. Cultivation
    Planting in the field should be done at the beginning of the rainy season or in October to February. Stages of the work of planting is as follows:
    Preparation of Planting Holes
    Preparation of the planting hole can be made one week before planting. Making more than a week of the planting hole will allow tertimbunnya back some of the holes had been dug with the soil around the excavation pit itself. This can reduce the productivity of labor of planting seeds, because the workforce had to repeat back digging a hole that had been buried. Vice versa, digging a planting hole that is too fast, or less than one week is also not recommended because the smaller the preparations for the truth mengontol size and position of the hole. Preparation of the planting hole is different to mineral soil and peat soil.
    Age and High Seeds
    Seedlings were selected in advance before they are placed primarily in terms of age and height of seedlings. Selection of seed intended for seed to be planted a seed that is resistant to pests and diseases, as well as high productivity. Age of seedlings will be planted on the ground is not the same in all places. This is caused by a climate that influence it. Transfer of seedlings at age handling can cause death. Seedlings to the age of 12-14 months is the best to be moved. Seedlings less than 6 months are not resistant to pests and diseases. Conversely, if exceeded will add to the cost of planting and planting time. Although the same age, height of seedlings in nurseries is not uniform. Higher seed is recommended ranges 70-180 cm. Seedlings whose height is less than the recommended size will lower production, while too high, production is not higher than plants derived from seeds are recommended.

    The composition and Planting Distances
    Seeding with a plastic bag system easier when seed is moved. Seeding the field system, the transfer of seedlings is done by rotation or scraped. By way round, the seeds will have to be moved along the ground. You do this by using a sharp shovel. In a distance of approximately 15 cm from the seedlings, shovel into the ground so stressed Part of the roots cut off. Within 2 weeks left and observed seedling growth. In the seedlings that are still fresh, cutting the roots of the latter can be done 4 weeks before planting and seedlings can be played. Seeds should be wrapped round with dried banana bark, coconut leaves, or other wrapping. Packaging aims to prevent the outbreak of the soil and facilitate transportation.
    Planting Time
    Planting at the beginning of the rainy season is the most appropriate because the water supply was instrumental in maintaining the growth of new seedlings transferred. Plantations established in the dry season can cause death and cost more because the necessary water supplies. Minimum 10 days after planting is expected to rain in a row. In Indonesia, the best time to plant is in October or November.

    Planting techniques
    • Determination of Crop Patterns
    When the canopy has not been close to each other, palm oil can be ditumpangsari with all kinds of crops / fruits like pineapple, but if the canopy has covered the monoculture cropping pattern.
    • Preparation of Planting Holes
    Pengajiran conducted to determine the places that will be the planting hole. Marker placed at a distance of 9 x 9 x 9 m in a triangular pattern. Planting hole bolted a few days before planting with size 50 x 40 cm deep as 40 cm.

    • Planting Method
    Oil palm is planted at the beginning of the rainy season, or after it rains regularly.
    a. Planting hole fertilized with fostat Agrophos 250g/lubang.
    b. Remove the plastic polybags and enter the seed.
    c. Hide top seed with soil excavation, padatkan.
    d. Give mulch around the trunk.
    D. Plant Maintenance
    In the oil palm trees are divided into two phases, namely immature plants (TBM) and crop yield (TM). At the time of TBM is a period of maintenance that requires a lot of effort and cost, because it is basically a refinement of the land clearing and preparation plants, other than that at this time determine the success in the TM. Jobs in plant maintenance TBMs are as follows:
    1) Consolidation,
    2) Maintenance of roads, walls, terraces, trenches, etc.,
    3) Stitching,
    4) Control weeds,
    5) Fertilization
    6) Maintenance of cover crops,
    7) Castration / ablation
    8) Pollination (pollination),
    9) Control of pests and diseases.

    Maintenance of oil palm on TM is basically similar to the maintenance of TBM. Activities on TM covers road maintenance, terrace embankments, trimming leaf midrib, consolidation and inventory, weed control, pest control and fertilizing.

    E. Harvest and Production
    Age harvest
    Oil palm fruit after 2.5 years old and ripe fruit 5.5 months after pollination.
    Palm oil can be harvested if the crop was 31 months, at least 60% fruit ripe harvest, there was 1 of 5 trees harvested bunches of ripe fruit. One bunches weighing around 10 kg more.
    How to Harvest
    1. Ripe bunches harvested at all with the criteria of 25-75% beyond memberondol fruit or undercooked by 12.5 – 25% of fruit outside memberondol
    2. Cut the pieces that held the leaf midrib
    3. Bunches of cut
    4. Marked in the cut with a name or date of harvest
    5. Stacks of leaf midrib is cut regularly in gawangan by ditelungkupkan.

    Harvest Period
    Harvesting is done five days a week, 2 days for equipment maintenance. Production levels affected the quality of crops, soil fertility, climatic conditions, plant age, plant maintenance and pest – the disease. Examples of types of palm oil production capacity of the dura:
    1. 4 years of age of the plant oil = 500 kg / ha, the core = 100 kg / ha
    2. 6 years of age of the plant oil = 1,000 kg / ha, the core = 200 kg / ha
    3. Plant age of 8 years of oil = 1,600 kg / ha, the core = 320 kg / ha
    4. Plant age of 10 years of oil = 2000 kg / ha, the core = 400 kg / ha
    5. Age of plants 12 years of oil = 2250 kg / ha, the core = 450 kg / ha.

    Basically, there are two main kinds of FFB processed at the plant is palm oil which is the result of processing the fruit and palm kernel oil produced from palm kernel oil extraction. In summary, the stages of processing described TBS until the oil produced
    as follows:
    1. Transport in TBS to Factory
    2. Boiling TBS
    3. Threshing and Pelumatan Fruit
    4. Extortion or Palm Oil Extraction
    5. Purification and Penjernihan Palm Oil
    6. Drying and Solving Skin
    7. The core of Shell Oil Separation

    The success of the harvest and production is very dependent on the plant material used, with the capacity of its human resources, equipment used at the time of harvest, the smooth transformation as well as other supporting factors such as organization, state of the area. Things that need attention in the Implementation of harvest were as follows: preparation for harvest, harvesting systems and organization, capacity, quality and sorting the harvest, forecast production, transport crops.
    Commodity Scale Oil Palm Development
    Oil palm plantations and palm oil processing unit (CPO mill) requires intensive capital, technology, and in the investment market. Oil palm plantations require a very wide area in order to produce oil palm fruit bunches and palm oil producing area on an ongoing basis and reserves may also be required for the expansion of plantations. Follow the rules, it is impossible to build palm oil mill without the plantation (which is capable of producing raw materials continuously). Therefore, investing in commodities CPO and palm oil plantations are categorized investment capital-intensive projects (capital intensive).
    To find a viable business or not, it would require the calculation of the feasibility usahanya.Untuk scale oil palm commodity, scale to large investments that promise large profits can be made on a land area of ​​approximately 6,000 ha. Data on crop production plan based on the age of the plant oil palm for 6000 ha of land area can be seen in Table below:
    Table Production of FFB, Palm Oil And Palm Oil Core Area Each Year for 6000 Ha
    Year Production (tons)
    TBS Inti Sawit Palm Oil
    1 54,000 7,020 1,350
    2 90,000 14,400 2,700
    3 108,000 20,520 3,456
    4 126,000 26,460 4,158
    5 156,000 34,320 5,460
    6 174,000 40,020 6,090
    7 186,000 42,780 6,510
    8 186,000 42,780 6,510
    9 186,000 42,780 6,510
    10 186,000 42,780 6,510
    11 186,000 42,780 6,510
    12 180,000 41,400 6,300
    13 168,000 38,640 5,880
    14 162,000 37,260 5,670
    15 156,000 35,880 5,460
    16 150,000 34,500 5,250
    17 144,000 33,120 5,040
    18 138,000 31,740 4,830
    19 132,000 30,360 4,620
    20 120,000 27,600 4,200
    21 114,000 26,220 3,990
    22 108,000 24,840 3,780
    23 102,000 23,460 3,570
    24 102,000 23,460 3,570
    25 102,000 23,460 3,570
    Sources: Agribusiness Series, Palm, Cultivation and Processing, publisher Penebar Self
    Marketing products on a large plantation of oil palm state (PBN) is conducted jointly through the Joint Marketing Office (CDE), while for large private estates (PBS), marketing of palm oil products conducted by the respective – respective companies.

    Commodity Infrastructure Development Facility Needs Oil Palm
    Facilities and infrastructure needed in the development of oil palm commodities are:
    1. Road Construction and Drainage Channels
    The road will be built on the development of oil palm plantations consist of:
    • The main road, a connecting road that connects the department to the garden center, plant and is a way out of the garden with good enough quality so that can be passed even though conditions in the rainy season. The main road direction is North – South with a length of road per hectare of approximately 2% of the total area,
    • production road, road traffic is the result of transportation from farm to factory. Road width 4-5 m in the direction perpendicular to the direction of row crops,
    • road block (control path), ie the path that limits the blocks with each other at any time serves as a road production. The main function of this road is a road control. The width of this road 3 m,
    • the way the dish is made at the border road between the department or the township,
    • auxiliary path is the path created on the corrugated region is useful for the production and transport to the production ramp,
    • the way round is the path used to place spin, usually made on a ridge,
    • path is the path bear made by rows of plants with a sling or gawangan, useful for mengankut yields to the collector yield (TPH).
    Road construction was carried out gradually according to the stages of plantation development, the first one built was the main road, while the production of orchard road or road could be built later, what matters is when the crop is produced (aged> 3 years) orchard road / production has been completed. Unlike with road construction, for construction of drainage channels must be simultaneously constructed simultaneously with the construction of the garden.
    2. Development Office and Other Buildings The buildings must be owned by an estate include office buildings, barracks, work, warehouse, workshop, housing (the director, assistants and employees, Mess and other supporting buildings. The buildings should be constructed is as follows: buildings office garden centers, office afdelin, labor barracks, garages / car garage, warehouse, factory, house directors, the home administrator, head of the garden house, foreman’s house, dormitory staff, clinics, places of worship. Number of buildings adapted to the needs of the project.
    3. Means of electricity and clean water.
    To supply needs to be supported by the provision of a generator large enough, it is associated with destining as an energy source at the location of the garden.
    4. Dock and piled tank
    Prepared as a result of the CPO dump before being shipped. This course is also required to reserve land pier.
    5. Transport Equipment
    To support the mobility of the head office of the project include vehicles, department heads, assistants, transportation equipment and tank truck production facilities and others. The type and amount of conveyance / vehicles tailored to the needs.
    6. Heavy Equipment
    Procurement of heavy equipment is intended to facilitate plantation development activities such as building roads, maintenance of roads, land clearing, creation and maintenance of drainage and can also as a means of conveyance when the condition of the road heavily damaged that are not DAPT passed by another vehicle. Types of heavy equipment that is needed is Bulldozers, Graders, Excavators, Compactors Dump Truck, Tractor and Farm.
    7. Other Infrastructure Development
    Installation support that must exist in the plantation includes water pumps, fuel tanks, fire extinguishers, generators, welding machines, compressors, electrical networks, water networks and equipment workshop. Supporting infrastructure procurement was conducted in parallel with the construction of the garden.
    NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY
    To support the national development policy in the implementation of regional autonomy in
    effective and efficient are needed stabilization of overall regional planning and integrated. Therefore, the development policies outlined in the Basic Pattern of Regional Development or Long-Term Regional Development Plan should be formulated with due regard to the condition, potential, problems and real needs and aspirations of local communities grow and thrive in the area, as well as good national policy set out in the Plan Long Term Development (RPJP) and the National Medium Term Development Plan (Development Plan) National.

    Directions and National Development Goals
    Long-term development plan drawn up to achieve the development goals as contained in the Preamble of the 1945 and refers to the direction of development as follows:
    1. Economic Development is directed to the stabilization of the national economic system to encourage the progress of the nation with the following characteristics.
    • The economy is structured as a joint effort based on the principle of the family
    • Branches of production which is important for the country and dominate the life of the people controlled by the state.
    • Earth’s water and natural resources contained therein is controlled by the state and used for the greatest prosperity of the people.
    • the national economy is organized based on the principle of economic democracy with the principles of togetherness, efficiency with justice, sustainability, environmental friendliness, independence, and balancing economic progress and national unity.
    2. Implementation of the overall development of attention to the rights and obligations of citizens to participate in the development.
    3. In order to improve implementation of development, the implementation of local governance based on broad autonomy. The implementation of regional autonomy in effort to encourage community participation in development in order to strengthen the unity and integrity.
    In order to develop the potential of the commodity in the primary sector, it needs to be based on the outline of the policies that apply nationally, the National Development Policy. Direction of the National Development Policy contained in one of Long Term Development Plan (RPJP) National, where RPJP prepared as the elaboration of the goal the establishment of the State government of Indonesia is listed in the Preamble to the Constitution of 1945 in the form of a vision, mission and direction of national development.

    Associated with excavation and investment potential in the primary sector, mentioned in section
    General Conditions RPJP 2005 – 2025 that gradually, the economic structure changed from that originally dominated by traditional farming into a more modern direction of economic activity by driving the industrial sector. Non-oil exports which showed an increase in the ability to produce products and the competitiveness of Indonesian products to the products of other countries increased rapidly. Even in the second half of the 80s, there is a change from the original structure of exports dominated by oil and gas exports to export is dominated by non-oil exports. Therefore the development potential of the primary sector is expected to provide a significant contribution in encouraging the growth of non-oil exports. Sector-related primary sector is the sector include fisheries, agriculture, animal husbandry, and mining.
    In the General Conditions RPJP 2005 – 2025 also mentioned that the use of energy in Indonesia has progressed quite rapidly, so the problem of energy shortage in the future would be anticipated to reduce energy dependence on oil and increase the contribution of coal and other energy sources in energy usage nationwide.
    While economic development in the next 20 years aimed at achieving the main objectives as follows.
    • The founding of a solid economic structure in which agriculture (in the broad sense) and mining became the basis of economic activity that produces products in an efficient and modern manufacturing industries globally competitive become the motor of the economy, and services become the glue of economic resilience.
    • Income per capita in 2025 reached approximately U.S. $ 6000 with a degree pemerataanyang relatively good and poor population of not more than 5 percent.
    • food self-sufficiency can be maintained at safe levels and the nutritional quality and availability of adequate food security instruments for the household level.
    In relation to development and investment in the primary sector in the primary target then stated that:
    1. Development-oriented economy and global competitiveness through a gradual transformation of the economy based on abundant natural resource comparative advantage into competitive economy berkeunggulan
    2. Improved efficiency, modernization, and the added value of primary activity, especially agriculture and mining in the broad sense are encouraged to compete in local and international markets and to strengthen national production base.
    3. Global competitiveness, the economy improved by developing a network pattern of clumps industry (industrial cluster) as its foundation, based on the 3 (three) basic principles:
    • Development of value-added chain and its main innovation is the choice of the direction of the pattern of development set out in a given period;
    • The strengthening (expanding and deepening) family structure by building linkages antarindustri industry and between industry and any related economic activity (primary and tertiary sectors, SMEs and foreign investment companies);
    • Development of micro-economic foundation (local) in order to materialize the business environment through the provision of various infrastructure yangkondusif increase collective capacity (technological, quality, capacity building of manpower and physical infrastructure) and the strengthening of economic institutions that can ensure that the increased interaction, productivity, and innovation that occurs , through healthy competition, can significantly improve the competitiveness of the economy in a sustainable manner.
    4. With a comparative advantage as a large country with a population of insight, ability, and creative high, and has a vast landscape and natural resources, industrial base competitive advantage in the next 20 years was developed by 3 (three) main principles, namely:
    • Development of processing industry of natural resources efficiently and rationally, taking into account the carrying capacity;
    • Development of industry and development that strengthens the ability of network interaction, communication, and information for both domestic and interests in relation to the dynamics of globalization;
    • Development of industrial integration and strengthening the structure of inter-industry linkages in the future.
    With these principles, the focus of industrial development in the next 20 years directed at the 4 (four) main pillars,
     Industrial agriculture-based and marine;
     transport industry;
     Information technology industry and telecommunications equipment (telematics), and
     manufacturing industrial base and strategic potential for strengthening the competitiveness of the industry forward.
    5. Improved efficiency, modernization, and value-added agricultural sectors in the broad sense is managed by a dynamic agribusiness development and efficient, involving the active participation of farmers and fishermen.
    6. Trade and investment are developed to be able to support the strengthening of global competitiveness. Meanwhile, investment is directed to support the realization of high economic growth in a sustainable and quality by improving the investment climate that is conducive and competitive, and aligned with a focus on increasing competitiveness of national economy.
    7. The role of effective government and the optimum is realized as a facilitator, regulator, as well as a catalyst for development in various levels of efficiency and effectiveness of public services, the creation of a conducive business environment and competitiveness, sustainability and preservation of the market mechanism.
    8. Development of local government capacity to be increased by increasing the capacity of local government institutional capacity of local government capacity building of local government finances, including efforts to increase partnerships with public and private sectors in financing construction of improved areas; strengthening of the legislature.
    9. Utilization of renewable natural resources, such as forests, agriculture, fisheries, and water carried in a rational, optimal, and efficient, by utilizing all the functions and benefits in a balanced manner and attention to carrying capacity and the ability to recover its natural. Management of renewable natural resources, which is now in critical condition, directed the efforts to rehabilitate and recover its carrying capacity, and subsequently directed to the utilization of intangible aspects such as services so that no further environmental damage and eliminate his ability as a capital for development management sustainable. The results or revenues derived from the utilization of renewable natural resources are directed to be reinvested in order to foster recovery, rehabilitation, and provisioning for the benefit of present and future generations.
    10. The effectiveness of the utilization of natural resources aimed at increasing value-added products of natural resources.
    11. Economic development is directed at activities that are environmentally friendly so that pollution and environmental degradation can be controlled, and directed also to the development of more economic use of environmental services. Recovery and rehabilitation of prioritized environmental conditions in an effort to improve the environmental capacity to support sustainable development.

    Regional Autonomy
    In the era of regional autonomy, with the Law on Local Government which has been refurbished by Law No. 32 year 2004 regarding the obligatory explained that the authority of local government affairs in the province is a provincial scale, which included:
    a) Planning and development control
    b) planning, utilization and supervision of spatial
    c) Control environment
    d) investment administration services, including cross-county / city.
    In setting the affairs of government, the provincial government should be oriented towards improving the welfare of the community in accordance with the condition, uniqueness, and potential in the regions concerned.

    Local involvement in determining policies relating to development in the area of ​​synergy to the overall national development is reflected in the Government Regulation no. 25 of 2000 on Government Authority and Provincial Authority as Autonomous Regions.
    In the primary sector development, the provincial government has authority, including
    as follows:
    1. Agriculture
    • Determination of minimum service standards in the field of agriculture which must be implemented by the District / City.
    • Determination of standards of nursery / seed farm.
    • Implementation of education and training of human resources functional technical agricultural personnel, skills and vocational training secondary level.
    • Promotion of export of agricultural commodities in the regions Province.
    • Provision of support for cooperation between the District / City in agriculture.
    • Setting and implementation of pest outbreaks and prevention of infectious diseases in agriculture across Districts / Municipalities.
    • Regulating the use of agricultural seeds.
    • Establishment of an integrated agricultural region based on an agreement with the County / City.
    • The implementation of disease investigation in the field of agriculture across the Regency / City;
    • Provision of support for control of eradication of plant pests, pests and diseases in agriculture.
    • Regulating the use of irrigation water.
    • Monitoring, forecasting and control and prevention of explosion for plant pests and diseases in agriculture.

    2. Plantation Field
    • Guidelines for the implementation of an inventory and mapping of the garden.
    • Implementation of plantation establishment and cross-zoning district / city.
    • Preparation of zoning, design, control of land and industrial estates across the primary field of Regency / City.
    • Preparation of the macro plan estates across Districts / Municipalities.
    • Implementation of cross-licensing plantation Regency / City
    • Control of Germination, fertilizers, pesticides, tools and machinery in the plantation.
    • Implementation of observation, forecasting organisms plants and integrated pest control pests of plantation crops.
    • Implementation and supervision of rehabilitation, reclamation, silviculture systems, cultivation, and processing.
    • Provision of support for providing education and technical training, applied research and development of oil fields.
    While the authority of the Central Government in development related to the primary sector are:
    1. Agriculture
    • Setting the income or expenditure of seeds / seedlings and establishment of standard guidelines for determining the nursery / seed farm.
    • Regulation and supervision of production, distribution, use and disposal of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals,
    • Determination of the standard release and withdrawal of varieties of agricultural commodities.
    • setting norms and standards for procurement, management and distribution of foodstuffs.
    • Determination of quality standards and testing procedures vegetable foodstuffs
    • Establishment of norms and technical standards eradication of agricultural pests.
    2. Plantation Field
    • Determination of criteria and standards of the plantation area
    • Preparation of national plan macro plantation, as well as the general pattern of land rehabilitation, soil conservation, soil conservation and preparation of zoning, design, control of land, plantations and primary industry
    • Determination of criteria and standards of production, processing, quality control, marketing and distribution of forest and plantations include seed, fertilizer and pesticide crop plantation
    • Determination of criteria and licensing standards of the plantation business
    • Determination of criteria and management standards that include management plans, utilization, maintenance, rehabilitation, reclamation, recovery, supervision and control of the plantation area
    • Determination of criteria and standards for conservation of biological resources and the ecosystem that includes the protection, preservation and sustainable use in plantation
    • Determination of criteria and standards of security and disaster relief organization of the plantation area
    • Control of Germination, fertilizers, pesticides, tools and machinery in the plantation. Of observation, forecasting and control of nuisance organisms plants integrated pest plants and plantation forestry.
    • Implementation and supervision of rehabilitation, reclamation, silviculture systems, cultivation, and processing.

    SECTORAL POLICIES RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF PALM OIL COMMODITY

    To develop and regulate the management of commodities both in the primary sector which in this study is in the oil palm sub-sector, the government implemented the strategies and devices perundangannya.

    1. Related Public Policy Plantation Sub Sector
    Sub-sector policy on the plantation, which became the foundation perundangannya is Law No. 18 of 2004 on Plantation, which has a scope set including estate planning, land use, empowerment and business management, management and marketing, research and development, human resource development, financing, and guidance and supervision.
    Estate planning is based among others on the national development plan, spatial, land and climate suitability and availability of land for plantation. For the plantation business, may be granted land rights in the form of property rights, right to build, and or use rights in accordance with the laws and regulations. As for customary land rights of indigenous peoples, rights of use should be discussed by the local indigenous community.
    Furthermore, the device settings in plantation sub sector contained in the Decree of the Minister of Agriculture. Guidelines for Licensing 357/Kpts/HK.350/5/2002 Plantation.
    According to this Decree, the type of business consisting of cultivation of plantation estates and plantation industry. Meanwhile, when less than 25 ha shall be performed by the registration licensors. IUP is valid for companies to manage commercial plantations in accordance with technical standards and in accordance with the provisions of existing regulations.
    Maximum area for the plantation does not apply to plantation companies majority shareholder Cooperative Plantation and plantation companies which part or all of the shares owned by the State government as well as provincial, district or city.
    To include the role of farmers planters, in this decree also regulates the participation of farmers planters where plantation development can be carried out in various patterns, namely:
     Cooperative Plantation Patterns, ie the pattern of development capital business 100% owned by cooperatives of plantation;
     Cooperative Patterns Joint Venture with Investor Cooperatives, the pattern of development co-owned by 65% ​​and the remainder owned by investors / corporate;
     Cooperative Patterns Joint Venture Investors, the pattern of development which shares 80% owned by investors / firms and 20% owned cooperative that is gradually increased;
     The pattern of BOT (Built Operate and Transfer), the pattern of development in which the construction and operation performed by the investor / company at any given time are then wholly transferred to the cooperative;
     BTN pattern, the pattern of development in which the investor / company building and garden or plantation product processing plant which will be transferred to the applicants / owners who are members of cooperatives;
     The patterns of development of other mutual benefit, strengthen, takes between farmers planters with plantation companies.
    2. Related Commodities Regulation Oil Palm

    a. Maximum slope of 25%.
    b. Altitude 000-300 m above sea level.
    c. Rainfall 1750 – 4000 mm / year with an average dry months per year 0-3 months.
    d. Effective depth of soil to mineral soil> 100 cm for the thickness of the peat soil <200 cm.
    e. Temperatures average per year 24 ° – 29 ° C.
    As for palm oil processing industry alone, according to Minister of Forestry and Plantations No.. Kep/Kpts/1999 107, permits the establishment of palm oil mills should be no guarantee of supply from their own gardens. Standard palm oil mills with a capacity of 30 tons fresh fruit bunches (FFB) / hour, requiring minimal support for oil palm plantations covering an area of ​​6000 ha. Capacitation mini-processing plant with 10 tons FFB / hour, requiring the support area of ​​2000 ha of oil palm plantations.

    3. Government Strategy and Program for Development of Oil Palm Commodity
    Agribusiness opportunities for the development of oil palm is still quite open for Indonesia, mainly because of the availability of natural resources / land, labor, technology and experts. With the position as the second largest producer of today and into the main producer in the world in the future, Indonesia needs to take this opportunity to better, from planning to attempt to keep it maintain its position as the lead country. In addition, the demands for the welfare of society as a justice should also be considered. This task is of course very heavy, and would benefit from appropriate measures for the development of oil palm Agribusiness Indonesia. In this context, the vision developed by the Ministry of Agriculture Directorate of Estate Crops Development in the development of oil palm is the "System Development and Agribusiness Palm competitive, Berkerakyatan, Sustainable and Decentralized."
    Empowering Strategy on Strengthening the Upper and Lower as choice of strategy in handling the oil palm agribusiness Indonesia feels quite right, but the problem is how these strategies can be implemented effectively. Therefore, the strategy needs to be supported by an organization that is more appropriate kind of palm board.
    The approach taken by palm oil development is the market mechanism, where the resource allocation mechanism is directed by the incentives / disincentives. This approach needs to be done considering the coconut oil is a commodity trading world, where success depends to penetrate pasarsangat of competitiveness against similar commodities produced by other countries. The role of government in this regard more as a driver of integration activities on-farm and off farm as well as develop systems and mechanisms to cope with risks and uncertainties. Through this integration is expected added value of commodities can be more contributing to the welfare of society. It also considers that the prices of primary products during the past 30 years tends to decrease, while the downstream products tends to increase this integration effort implies also will reduce the risks and uncertainties of farming developed by farmers.

    In the future development of oil palm agribusiness will be directed to Eastern Indonesia, especially on the island of Borneo, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya and other areas that potentially allow to be developed. Of the various theoretical and empirical studies, development of oil palm agribusiness is more effective when using the approach of Plantation Community Industrial Zone, involving people in the container planters farmers cooperatives / business entity that together with partner companies to develop plantations and palm oil mills to provide benefits and mutual benefit.

    1. Increased Productivity and Quality Results Palm
    This policy is intended to increase crop productivity and quality of palm oil results in stages, both produced by farmers and large plantation planters. Implementation of policies to improve productivity and quality of palm oil, among others pursued through:
    a. Encourage the development of seed technology-based industries and markets with the participation of private and public.
    b.
    c. Protection of plasma nutfakh palm.
    d. Rejuvenation of oil palm plantations has gradually backed by comprehensive planning.
    e. Development of partnerships between communities and oil palm investors.
    f. Seek support for infrastructure support for oil palm development, among others, capital, roads / bridges, tanks, and Hide adequate ports in cooperation with relevant parties.
    g.
    h. Revision SNI and olein.
    i. Encourages quality improvement through crop production, among others, timely, more efficient processing of TBS and TBS transport network improvements.

    2. Downstream Industries Development and Increased Value Added Palm This policy was intended for Indonesian palm oil exports are no longer as raw material (CPO), but in the form of processed products, so the added value in the country enjoyed. Application of this downstream industry development policies pursued by among others:
    a.
    b. Development of downstream palm oil industry in the production centers.
    c. Increased cooperation in the field of promotion, research and development and human resource development with CPO producing countries.
    d. Facilitating the development of bio-diesel.
    e. Development of market research and market intelligence to strengthen competitiveness.

    3. Providing Support Funding

    With these efforts are expected to agribusiness palm efficient, productive and highly competitive for the greatest prosperity in a sustainable society will be realized.

    OTHER SECTORAL POLICIES RELATING PALM OIL COMMODITY

    1. Regulations Related to the decentralization and the Environment
    Oil palm plantation results are then processed into a variety of commodities, especially oil palm mintak, in its processing must take into account the waste that can pollute the environment. Industrial wastewater processed palm oil anaerobic still has a COD content of organic compounds that have not meet wastewater quality standards, requiring further processing to reduce the content of these organic compounds. Based on the decision of the Minister of State for Population and environment No. Kep ​​- 51/MENLH/10 1995, the amount of effluent quality standards for palm oil industry is 250 mg / l BOD5 or 500 mg / l COD, with the waste discharge a maximum of 6 m3 / ton product.
    And to monitor the quality of this waste, the regional government in accordance with Government Regulation no. 25 of 2000 on Government Authority and Provincial Authority as an Autonomous Region has the authority to determine policies relating to procedures for monitoring waste and pollution by waste prevention procedures.

    2. Regulations Related to Land Use and Land
    In connection with the use of land for oil palm plantations, then the Minister of Forestry and Plantations No..
    a.
    b. Not loaded right.
    c. Small island covering an area of ​​less than 10 km2, excluding that can be released.
    d. Prioritized on vacant land or open based on the most recent Landsat imagery.
    e. A minimum area of ​​10,000 hectares.
    To use good land for oil palm plantations and processing industry, then based on Law no. 5 year 1960 on Basic Agrarian Hak Guna Usaha need taken care of the land, namely the right to seek land to a company controlled by the State agricultural / plantation, fishery or animal husbandry. Right to cultivate land which was given on the extent of at least 5 acres, provided that if the extent of 25 acres or more must wear appropriate capital investments and techniques of good company, in accordance with the changing times. Right to cultivate this can only be given to Indonesian citizens and legal entities established under Indonesian law and domiciled in Indonesia.

    3. Regulations Related to Trade and Investment Commodity
    To improve palm oil commodity trading, it would require an attractive business investment. One is by way of foreign investment. To invest in Indonesia, investors should first look at what is called the Negative List of Investment. This list is governed by Presidential Decree. Junto No. 96 in 2000. 118 of 2000 which includes business investment and business fields closed to investment. Business sector which is set here refers to the opportunities that are still open to investors if it meets the specified requirements, such as partnerships with local companies, working with small businesses, certain locations, etc.. Special provisions for certain business sectors are open to investments that must be understood by investors, both at the time of application and implementation of investment activities in Indonesia contained within the Capital Investment Implementation Technical Instructions.
    In addition, the Government also entered into agreements with various countries to minimize the smuggling of oil palm which is currently often the case, namely by tightening the supervision on the customs and patrolling the trade routes whether by land, sea or air. And further more, the Government through the Minister of Trade No.. 07/M-DAG/PER/4/2005 April 19, 2005 stating that the core of palm oil (Palm Kernel) is the export of controlled goods.

    4. Regulations Related to Taxes and Levies Commodities

    It is stipulated in the Decree of the Minister of Finance of Republic of.

    Komentar oleh najla | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  2. TUGAS INDIVIDU YANG 6 ORANG
    NAMA : SUMIATUN
    NIM : C1B009037

    Luas lahan, produktivitas dan ekspor komoditi karet 5 tahun terakhir

    1.Luas Lahan.
    Kalimantan Selatan merupakan salah satu Propinsi penghasil karet di Indonesia dengan luasan mencapai 173.000 ha, dengan harga karet yang sangat baik saat ini memacu minat petani menanam karet dan meremajakan karet yang sudah tua.
    Pemerintah telah menetapkan terget menjadi negara produsen karet alam melalui program rehabilitasi dan perluasan areal perkebunan karet, yaitu dari 3,5 juta ha menjadi 4,0 juta ha serta melakukan peremajaan bertahap sekitar 2 juta ha karet rakyat yang saat ini masih menggunakan benih asalan dan dikelola sebagai hutan karet.
    Disadari bahwa ketersediaan benih unggul akan menjadi faktor pembatas dalam pencapaian target tersebut diatas, oleh karena itu perlu ditumbuhkan industri perbenihan yang profesional untuk tanaman karet. Selama ini penyediaan benih karet hanya dilayani secara terbatas oleh Pusat Penelitian Karet.
    MASALAH PERBENIHAN KARET UNGGUL
    • Persentasi penggunaan benih unggul baru 40 persen.
    • Kemampuan daya beli petani untuk membeli benih unggul rendah.
    • Kurangnya pengetahuan petani tentang pentingnya penggunaan benih unggul.
    • Penyediaan benih karet membutuhkan waktu lama dan biaya investasi yang besar sehingga jarang ada produsen benih yang bergerak secara profesional.
    Rekomendasi Klon Karet Tahun 2006-2010
    Berdasarkan rumusan lokakarya Nasional Pemuliaan Tanaman Karet tahun 2005, klon-klon karet yang direkomendasikan untuk priode tahun 2006 – 2010 terdiri atas 2 kelompok, yaitu klon anjuran komersial dan klon anjuran harapan :
    1. Klon Anjuran Komersial
    • Klon Penghasil Lateks : BPM 24, BPM 107, BPM 109, IRR 104, PB 217 dan PB 260.
    • Klon Penghasil Kayu dan Lateks : BPM 1, PB 330, PB 340, RRIC 100, AVROS 2037, IRR 5, IRR 32, IRR 39, IRR 42, IRR 112 dan IRR 118.
    • Klon Penghasil Kayu.
    IRR 70, IRR 71, IRR 72 dan IRR 78.
    2. Klon Harapan
    IRR 24, IRR 33, IRR 41, IRR 54, IRR 64, IRR 105, IRR 107, IRR 111, IRR 119, IRR 141, IRR 144, IRR 208, IRR 211dan IRR 220.
    3. Klon Anjuran Kalimantan Selatan Berdasarkan Kondisi Iklim.
    Kondisi Iklim Klon Anjuran
    Basah RRIC 100, BPM 1, IRR 118
    Sedang BPM 1, 24, 107, 109. PB 217, 260, 330, 340, PR 255, 261, IRR 32, 39, 42, 112 dan AVROS 2037.
    Kering BPM 1, 107, 109, PB 217, IRR 32, 39, 118 dan AVROS 2037.

    2 . produktivitas
    DATA VOLUME DAN NILAI EKSPOR HASIL PERKEBUNAN KALIMANTAN SELATAN
    SELAMA 6 TAHUN TERAKHIR 2002 – 2007

    Perkembangan produksi karet di Indonesia selama tiga tahun terakhir terus mengalami kenaikan. Pada tahun 2005 produksi karet mencapai 2,27 juta ton dan meningkat 16,13 persen pada tahun 2006 menjadi sebesar 2,64 juta ton. Pada tahun 2007 produksi karet meningkat sekitar 4,83 persen atau menjadi 2,76 juta ton. Perkembangan produksi karet Indonesia tahun 2005 – 2007 dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut ini.
    Tabel 2.1 Perkembangan Produksi Karet Indonesia Tahun 2005 – 2007 (Ton)
    Tahun PR PBN PBS Jumlah Pertumbuhan (%)
    2005 1 838 670 209 837 222 384 2 270 891 9,93
    2006 2 082 597 265 813 288 821 2 637 231 16,13
    2007 2 186 209 277 200 301 285 2 764 694 4,83

    3. Perkembangan Ekspor Karet

    Produksi karet Indonesia sebagian besar dipasarkan ke mancanegara (diekspor) dan hanya sebagian kecil saja yang dipasarkan didalam negeri. Pangsa pasar untuk produk karet tersebut telah menjangkau kelima benua yakni Asia, Afrika, Australia, Amerika dan Eropa. Namun demikian Asia masih merupakan pangsa pasar yang paling utama.
    Ekspor karet Indonesia secara umum dibagi dalam dua jenis yaitu karet alam dan karet sintetis, dimana selama periode tahun 2005-2007 produksi karet yang diekspor sebagian besar dalam bentuk karet alam. Dalam perkembangannya ekspor kedua jenis karet tersebut selama periode tahun 2005 -2007 mengalami fluktuasi. Ekspor karet alam tahun 2005-2007 terus mengalami peningkatan, dimana pada tahun 2005 volume ekspor karet alam Indonesia mencapai 2,02 juta ton dengan nilai ekspor sebesar US$ 2.583,96 juta dan pada tahun 2006 volume ekspor karet alam mengalami kenaikan sekitar 12,96 persen yakni menjadi 2,29 juta ton dan nilainya mencapai US$ 4322,29 juta.
    Pada tahun 2007 ekspor karet alam juga mengalami peningkatan sebesar 5,28 persen yakni menjadi 2,41 juta ton dengan nilai US$ 4870,51 juta. Sedangkan perkembangan ekspor karet sintetis mengalami fluktuasi, dimana pada tahun 2005 volume ekspor karet sintetis mencapai 30,45 ribu ton dengan nilai sebesar US$ 28,39 juta, dan pada tahun 2006 mengalami peningkatan sebesar 52,20 persen yakni menjadi 46,35 ribu ton dengan nilai US$ 49,52 juta. Pada tahun 2007 ekspor karet sintetis mengalami penurunan sebesar 4,87 persen dengan volume sebesar 44,09 ribu ton dan nilai sebesar US$ 56,58 juta. Perkembangan ekspor karet Indonesia tahun 2005-2007 dapat dilihat pada tabel 3.1 dibawah ini.
    Sumber:
    http://disbun.kalselprov.go.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=91&Itemid=82
    http://www.investasilampung.web.id/in/potensi/sektor-perkebunan.html

    Komentar oleh sumiatun | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  3. (1).TUGAS KELOMPOK MAHASISWA( FE) UNJA REGULER
    A.DEWI SARTIKA (C1B009023)
    B.SUMIATUN (C1B009037)
    C.YUDI ANDRIANSYAH PUTRA (C1BOO9039)

    COMMODITY is observed RUBBER
    Rubber plantation is one of the important commodity, both as a source of income, employment and foreign exchange, driving the growth of new economic centers in the region around the rubber plantation as well as environmental protection and resource conservation. Rubber as an industrial raw material requires a good quality assurance systems, it is usually done by determining the quality of end product testing. This system has many flaws including the results have not been able to ensure contamination-free and consistent.
    Harnessing the potential and overcome problems in rubber cultivation in Indonesia as well as a peek of the rising trend of the world natural rubber consumption in the future and the symptoms improved rubber prices, the opportunities and challenges of Indonesia in improving its natural rubber production.
    Facing competition among producing countries, exports of rubber products have enhanced tailored to consumer demand. Global market competition is not limited to products produced, but related aspects of the process, human resources and the environment.
    Prospect of rubber Indonesia in the future is bright where there are vast rubber plantations, is still the availability of land for new planting as well as the tendency of the increasing demand and rubber prices in world markets. To take advantage of market opportunities available possibilities efforts include: increased production of land by intercropping technology, quality improvement with a better processing system and the development of new products in order to open up wider market opportunities.
    Planning guidance for development until 2010 will be conducted the following activities.
    • improving the quality of crops (intensification / rehabilitation) covering 800,000 ha,
    • rejuvenation of old plants / damaged 400,000 ha and (3) expansion and development of new plant covering an area of 200,000 ha.

    Rubber is an export commodity that is able to contribute in efforts to increase foreign exchange Indonesia.ekspor rubber during the last 20 years continues to show an increase of 1.0 million tons in 1985 to 1.3 in 1995 and 1.9 million tons in 2004.pendapatan foreign exchange earnings from this commodity in 2004 reached U.S. $ 2.25 billion, which merupaka 5% of non-oil foreign exchange earnings (Answar, 2006).
    1. Food Sector (Food Sector)
    Potential: food sector on the gum rubber plants.
    The problem was: when consuming excessive sweets can lead to disorders of the throat especially when consumed by children is not good for health.
    2. Agricultural Production Sector
    Processing of rubber has the prospect of high fighting spirit and values, by making use of alternative products that can anticipate the aspects will be lost / decrease in production In the schematic phase of diversification of products in the processed rubber kasilkan diantranya are:
    a.dot and baby gear
    b. Clothing and gloves
    Rubber plant breeding activities in Indonesia have been many clones producing superior as a producer of latex rubber and timber. National Workshop on Rubber Plant Breeding, 2005, has been recommended clones new generation of superior-4 for the period 2006 to 2010, ie clone: IRR 5, IRR 32, IRR 39, IRR 42, IRR 104, IRR 112 and IRR 118. Rubber plant clones IRR 42 and IRR 112 release will be filed while the other IRR rubber plant clones has been released officially. Rubber plant clones showed productivity and good performance at various locations, but has a variation of agronomic characters and properties of the other secondary. Therefore the user must choose carefully the rubber plant clones corresponding development of agro-ecological regions and types of rubber products to be produced.
    Clones the old rubber plant that has been released that is GT 1, AVROS 2037, PR 255, PR 261, PR 300, PR 303, RRIM 600, RRIM 712, BPM 1, 24 BPM, 107 BPM, BPM 109, PB 260, RRIC 100 is still possible to be developed, but must be done carefully in both the placement and location of its management system. Rubber plant clones GT 1 and RRIM 600 in various locations reported experiencing disruption and Corynespora Colletotrichum leaf disease. While the rubber plant clones BPM 1, PR 255, PR 261 has a problem with quality latex latex so that utilization is limited only suitable for certain types of rubber products. Clone PB 260 rubber plants are very sensitive to drought and disruption of the flow of tapping wind and drought, so its management must be done correctly.
    3. Input Supply Sector
    Rubber plant which is also the leading commodity in the plantation sector has a plant area covering 96,408 ha with production of 54,120 tons. Where the total area of 67,472 ha of smallholder rubber plantations with production 29,646 tons. For the largest rubber plantation in several districts in Bone Onions. While the land is in District Bones PT.HIM Onions.
    Until now the district has a new Bones Onion processing unit (FMU) is the capacity of 14.4 tonnes of rubber latex sheets thick and 3 tons per day produced their own gardens covering 3694 ha. While the rest of the production of rubber in the form of wet yet sold to a processing plant in South Sumatra and Lampung.

    GOVERNMENT POLICY IN THE PROMOTION OF COMMODITY RUBBER

    1.Macroeconomic, monetary policy is the provision of funds (Among other new models CESS) and fiscal (tax breaks and other pungutanb her.
    2.industrial policy with the development priorities through the development ilir industry of the industrial area of plantation society (KIMBUN)
    3. policy of international trade leads to more free trade and more equitable.
    4.infrastructure development policies.
    5.institutional policy
    6.pendaya policy use of natural resources efficiently and wisely.
    7.agribusiness policy in the region
    8.food security policy related to agribusiness rubber

    In general, the Plantation Office policy is, “Facilitating the development of a synergistic and sustainable plantations as support material in domestic and export industries of the National.” Public Policy Office Plantation South Kalimantan Province is as follows:
    1. Improved quality of human resources especially in order to form a professional apparatus.
    2. Service Improvement and Development to strengthen the competitiveness of agribusiness through the stabilization effort level “on-farm” and encourage the business level “of – farm” in a sustainable and market-oriented.
    3. Increased capacity of community institutions to optimize the utilization and stabilization of the plantation area.

    Government policies will move the national rubber
    government appealed to the public, especially people in
    Sintang Sanggau area or to plant rubber trees in plantations
    negatively toward the production of rubber seedlings are able to produce by farmers
    breeder seed.

    STRATEGIES AT THE “ON FARM” required are:
    1.the use of superior clones with high produktifits (3000 kg / ha / yr)
    2.rejuvenation of old rubber acceleration of 400 thousand ha until 2009 and 1.2 million ha until 2025.
    3.diversification of farming with food crops as rubber plants and animals between
    4.increase the efficiency of farming.

    STRATEGIES AT THE “OFF FARM” IS:
    1.improving the quality of the material by the rubber based on ISO
    2.increase marketing efficiency to increase farmers’ price margins.
    3.provision of micro credit, small and menengahuntuk rejuvenation, processing and marketing joint
    4.infrastructure development
    LAND AREA, productivity, EXPORT
    The area of rubber plantations today (Year 2010) recorded an area of 78,289 ha of plantation area of 70,998 hectares, a large country estate of 700 ha and 6591 ha of private estates with a total production of 54,338 tons of lumb.
    These products are generally marketed to Banjarmasin for Crumb Rubber plant needs. Center of the largest rubber plantation in West Kutai District (District Melak and Barong Tongkok) developed by farmers through the project TCSSP planters assistance from the Asian Development Bank (Asian Development Bank / ADB). Other rubber growing areas large enough to be in District Palaran and Samarinda Ilir (Samarinda), District East and Aberdeen North Aberdeen (Aberdeen City), District satiated and Talisayan (Berau), District of Tanjung Selor (Bulungan District), District of City Build , Marang Wood, Samboja and Muara Badak (District Kukar). In addition there are also plasma farmer-owned planters in the District of Long Kali (Paser District) and in the District of Marang Wood (District Kukar) the second – both are built of PTPN XIII. Rubber plantations owned by large private estates located in the District of North Paser Penajam owned by PT. Majapahit Agro Corp Ltd and PT Kutai regency. Product Hasfarm.
    Development of statistical data, production, productivity and labor commodity rubber plantation in East Kalimantan 2000 – 2010 can be seen in the following table:
    Table 1. Recapitulation Area, Production & Rubber Labour
    Tahun Luas TM (Ha) Luasan Total (Ha) Produksi (Ton) Produktivitas (Kg/Ha) TKP (Orang)
    2010 39.903,00 78.289,00 54.338,00 1.361,75 51.687
    2009 40.266,00 75.924,50 49.620,50 1.232,32 51.249
    2008 38.863,50 74.672,00 49.611,00 1.276,54 49.556
    2007 38.171,00 67.891,00 47.225,50 1.237,21 44.693
    2006 36.027,50 64.957,00 43.845,00 1.216,99 43.335
    2005 33.664,50 62.426,00 39.341,00 1.168,62 41.729
    2004 33.111,50 60.154,50 34.726,50 1.048,77 41.899
    2003 32.745,00 60.477,50 29.629,00 904,84 39.160
    2002 30.375,00 60.706,50 25.430,00 837,20 31.899
    2001 22.325,00 54.503,00 26.391,00 1.182,13 32.582
    2000 20.378,00 63.162,00 21.560,00 1.058,00 32.964

    The development of rubber production
    The development of rubber production in Indonesia during the last three years have continued to rise. In 2005 rubber production reached 2.27 million tons and increased 16.13 percent in 2006 amounted to 2.64 million tons. In 2007 rubber production increased by approximately 4.83 percent or 2.76 million tons. The development of rubber production in Indonesia 2005 – 2007 can be seen in the table below.
    Table 2.1 Development of Rubber Production Indonesia Year 2005-2007 (Ton)
    Year PR PBN PBS Total Growth (%)
    2005 1 838 670 209 837 222 384 2 270 891 9.93
    2006 2 082 597 265 813 288 821 2 637 231 16.13
    2007 2 186 209 277 200 301 285 2 764 694 4.83

    Indonesian rubber production in 2007 amounted to 2.76 million tons coming from the plantation of 2.19 million tons, a large plantation of 0.28 million tons of state and large private estates for o, 30 million tons.
    The development of rubber exports
    Production of rubber Indonesia is largely marketed to foreign countries (exported) and only a few that are marketed within the country. Share of the market for rubber products is extending the five continents namely Asia, Africa, Australia, America and Europe. However, Asia is still the most important market share.
    Indonesia rubber export is generally divided into two types, namely natural rubber and synthetic rubber, which during the period 2005-2007 the production of rubber is exported mostly in the form of natural rubber. In its development, both types of rubber exports during the period 2005 -2007 has fluctuated. Exports of natural rubber in 2005-2007 continued to increase, where in 2005 the volume of Indonesia’s natural rubber exports reached 2.02 million tonnes with export value of U.S. $ 2583.96 million and in 2006 the volume of exports of natural rubber increased approximately 12.96 per cent ie to 2.29 million tonnes and valued at U.S. $ 4322.29 million.
    In 2007 exports of natural rubber also increased by 5.28 percent to 2.41 million tonnes which is valued at U.S. $ 4870.51 million. While the development of synthetic rubber exports fluctuate, where in 2005 the volume of exports of synthetic rubber reached 30.45 thousand tons with a value of U.S. $ 28.39 million, and in 2006 increased by 52.20 percent to 46.35 thousand tonnes ie with a value of U.S. $ 49.52 million. In 2007 exports of synthetic rubber declined by 4.87 percent with a volume of 44.09 thousand tons and a value of U.S. $ 56.58 million. Indonesia rubber export growth in 2005-2007 can be seen in Table 3.1 below.

    Table 3.1 Export Development Rubber Indonesia Year 2005 to 2007
    Year Natural Rubber Synthetic Rubber Natural Rubber Growth (%) Growth of Synthetic Rubber (%)
    Volume Value Volume Value Volume Value Volume Value
    2005 2 024 608 2 582 963 30 450 28 393 7.98 18.46 -21.04 -4.72

    2006 2 287 053 4 322 294 46 346 49 523 12.96 67.27 52.20 74.42

    2007 2 407 849 4 870 514 44 089 56 584 5.28 12.68 -4.87 14.26
    Indonesia’s natural rubber exports to various destination countries, in 2007 the top five countries that are importers of rubber Indonesia respectively – helped the United States that export volume reached 644.27 thousand tons or 26.76 percent of total Indonesian exports of natural rubber with value of U.S. $ 1287.32 million, which is Japan ranked second with exports amounting to 398.02 thousand tonnes or 16.53 percent memilikki contribution and value of exports amounted to U.S. $ 806.50 million, which is China’s third with a contribution of 14.20 percent or export volume of 341.82 thousand tons with an export value of U.S. $ 701.05 million, while Singapore and Korea Republic are fourth and fifth. Natural rubber exports to Singapore in 2007 reached 162.03 thousand tons or 6.73 percent, with export value of U.S. $ 333.04 million, while for Korea Republic of 93.14 thousand tons or 3.87 percent, with export value reaching U.S. $ 187.48 million. The large volume of natural rubber exports from the five largest importing countries of Indonesia’s natural rubber in 2007 are presented in table 3.2 below.
    Table 3.2 Export of Natural Rubber Indonesia Year 2007 by Country of Destination
    No Destination volume (tons) Value (U.S. $) Percent Volume (%)
    1 United States 644 270 1 287 317 26.76
    2 Japan 398 025 806 497 16.53
    3 China 341 281 701 054 14.20
    4 Singapore 162 032 333 038 6.73
    5 Korea Republic 93,139,187,483 3.87
    6 Others 768 562 1 555 125 31.92
    For synthetic rubber in 2007 Indonesia exported to 27 countries. Among these countries there are the five largest importing countries namely, China’s first with a volume of 21.68 thousand tons or 49.18 percent of Indonesia’s total exports of synthetic rubber with a value of U.S. $ 29.47 million, India with the second volume of 5.92 thousand tons and export value of U.S. $ 4.89 million, the third volume of Thailand with 3.92 thousand tons with an export value of U.S. $ 4.13 million. For the fourth and fifth are state of Malaysia and New Zaeland with a volume of 3.68 tons and 3.51 million tons with an export value of U.S. $ 4.31 million and U.S. $ 3.16 million. The large volume of rubber exports from the five largest importing countries of synthetic rubber Indonesia in 2007 are presented in Table 3.3 below.

    Table 3.3 Exports of Synthetic Rubber Indonesia Year 2007 by Country of Destination
    No Destination volume (tons) Value (U.S. $) Percent Volume (%)
    1 China 21 684 29 466 49.18
    India 2 5923 4891 13.43
    3 Thailand 3 915 4 126 8.88
    Malaysia 3680 4 4310 8.35
    5 New Zaeland 3509 3163 7.96
    6 Others 5 376 10 629 12.19
    SUMBER :
    http://www.litbang.deptan.go.id/special/publikasi/doc_perkebunan/karet/karet-bagian-a.pdf
    http://budidayakaret.blogspot.com/
    http://www.investasilampung.web.id/in/potensi/sektor-perkebunan.html
    http://disbun.kalselprov.go.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=18

    Komentar oleh dewi sartika | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

    • Dewi, good luck you use your opportunity to upload your assignment in English. Great Job.

      Komentar oleh johannessimatupang | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  4. Tugas Yudi Andriansyah Putra
    AGRIBISNIS

    Agribisnis adalah kegiatan manusia yang memanfaatkan sumber daya alam untuk pemenuhan kebutuhan hidupnya. Agribisnis, dengan perkataan lain, adalah cara pandang ekonomi bagi kegiatan dalam bidang pertanian. Agribisnis mmempelajari strategi memperoleh keuntungan dengan mengelola aspek budidaya, pascapanen, proses pengolahan, hingga tahap pemasaran. Secara luas, agribisnis berarti “bisnis berbasis sumber daya alam”.
    Objek agribisnis dapat berupa tumbuhan, hewan, ataupun organisme lainnya. Kegiatan budidaya termasuk dalam bagian hulu agribisnis. Apabila produk budidaya (hasil panen) dimanfaatkan oleh pengelola sendiri, kegiatan ini disebut pertanian subsisten, dan merupakan kegiatan agribisnis paling primitif. Pemanfaatan sendiri dapat berarti juga menjual atau menukar untuk memenuhi keperluan sehari-hari.
    Dalam arti luas agribisnis tidak hanya mencakup kepada industri makanan saja. Seiring perkembangan teknologi, pemanfaatan produk pertanian berkaitan erat dengan farmasi, teknologi bahan, dan penyediaan energi.

    sebenarnya perbedaan agribisnis dan agrobisnis itu tidak ada,
    Agrobisnis adalah bagian dari Agribisnis..
    tetapi pengertian Agrobisnis bukanlah pengertian Agribisnis..
    Agrobisnis hanyalah penyebutan kata didalam bahasa Indonesia..

    Komentar oleh johannessimatupang | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  5. TUGAS INDIVIDU 6 ORANG
    NAMA : SABAM RICARDO PANGARIBUAN
    NIM : C1B009003
    PRODUKTIVITAS, LUAS LAHAN, EKSPOR KAKAO 5 TAHUN TERAKHIR

    1.Produktivitas Kakao
    TEMPO Interaktif, Denpasar: Departemen Pertanian menyatakan produksi kakao Indonesia terus mengalami penurunan sejak tahun 2006, dari sebelumnya sekitar 1.000 kilogram per hektare, saat ini hanya mampu memproduksi 680 kilogram per hektare.

    “Bahkan penurunan (produktivitas) pernah terjadi hingga 110 kilogram per hektare,” kata Direktur Jenderal Perkebunan Ahmad Manggabarani sesaat sebelum mengikuti workshop bertema Aktualisasi dan Sinkronisasi Gerakan Program Kakao Indonesia di Bali, Jumat (31/10).

    Salah satu penyebab menurunnya produktivitas, kata dia, karena banyak tanaman kakao di Indonesia yang sudah tua. Pemerintah mengalokasikan dana sebesar Rp 13 triliun untuk program peningkatan produktivitas dan kualitas mutu kakao Indonesia. Dana tersebut di antaranya digunakan untuk melakukan peremajaan tanaman kako seluas 75 hektare di sembilan provinsi.

    Sejumlah daerah yang tercatat menjadi sentra kakao di Indonesia adalah Nusa Tenggara Timur, Sulawesi, Papua, dan Bali. Dengan program peremajaan ini, kata dia, pemerintah berharap produktivitas kakao dapat terdongkrak naik menjadi 1.500 kilogram per hektarenya.

    Selama kurun waktu tahun 2006 hingga 2008, ekspor kakao indonesia berkisar antara 400 hingga 800 ton per bulan. Negara-negara Amerika dan Eropa masih menjadi pasar potensial kakao.

    Namun demikian, angka ekspor kakao ke Amerika saat ini telah menurun. Padahal, sebelumnya Amerika merupakan importir kakao Indonesia terbesar, disusul kemudian Malaysia. “Sekarang terbalik, dari total ekspor kakao Indonesia, Malaysia 30 persen, Amerika 20 persen,” ujar dia.

    Sekretaris Jenderal Assosiasi Kakao Indonesia (Askindo) Zulhefi Sikumbang mengatakan nilai ekspor kakao Indonesia saat ini mencapai 360 ribu ton per bulan. Dia berharap ekspor ini akan mengalami peningkatan di akhir tahun 2008 ini. “Bulan November-Desember merupakan bulan panen kakao,” kata dia.

    Ekspor komoditas ini, menurut dia, memberikan devisa pada negara sebesar US$ 140 juta per tahun. Di pasaran dunia harga kakao Indonesia mencapai US$ 3.000 per ton. Namun akibat turunnya produktivitas dan mutu, saat ini harganya hanya mencapai US$ 1.900.
    2. Luas Lahan
    1. Persiapan Lahan
    – Bersihkan alang-alang dan gulma lainnya
    – Gunakan tanaman penutup tanah (cover crop) terutama jenis polong-polongan seperti Peuraria javanica, Centrosema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides & C. caeraleum untuk mencegah pertumbuhan gulma terutama jenis rumputan
    – Gunakan juga tanaman pelindung seperti Lamtoro, Gleresidae dan Albazia, tanaman ini ditanam setahun sebelum penanaman kakao dan pada tahun ketiga jumlah dikurangi hingga tinggal 1 pohon pelindung untuk 3 pohon kakao (1 : 3)

    2. Pembibitan
    – Biji kakao untuk benih diambil dari buah bagian tengah yang masak dan sehat dari tanaman yang telah cukup umur
    – Sebelum dikecambahkan benih harus dibersihkan lebih dulu daging buahnya dengan abu gosok
    – Karena biji kakao tidak punya masa istirahat (dormancy), maka harus segera dikecambahkan
    – Pengecambahan dengan karung goni dalam ruangan, dilakukan penyiraman 3 kali sehari
    – Siapkan polibag ukuran 30 x 20 cm (tebal 0,8 cm) dan tempat pembibitan
    – Campurkan tanah dengan pupuk kandang (1 : 1), masukkan dalam polibag
    – Sebelum kecambah dimasukkan tambahkan 1 gram pupuk TSP / SP-36 ke dalam tiap-tiap polibag
    – Benih dapat digunakan untuk bibit jika 2-3 hari berkecambah lebih 50%
    – Jarak antar polibag 20 x 20 cm lebar barisan 100 cm
    – Tinggi naungan buatan disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan sehingga sinar masuk tidak terlalu banyak
    – Penyiraman bibit dilakukan 1-2 kali sehari
    – Penyiangan gulma melihat keadaan areal pembibitan
    – Pemupukan dengan N P K ( 2 : 1 : 2 ) dosis sesuai dengan umur bibit, umur 1 bulan : 1 gr/bibit, 2 bulan ; 2 gr/bibit, 3 bulan : 3 gr/bibit, 4 bulan : 4 gr/bibit. Pemupukan dengan cara ditugal
    – Siramkan POC NASA dengan dosis 0,5 – 1 tutup/pohon diencerkan dengan air secukupnya atau semprotkan dengan dosis 4 tutup/tangki setiap 2-4 minggu sekali
    – Penjarangan atap naungan mulai umur 3 bulan dihilangkan 50% sampai umur 4 bulan
    – Amati hama & penyakit pada pembibitan, antara lain ; rayap, kepik daun, ulat jengkal, ulat punggung putih, dan ulat api. Jika terserang hama tersebut semprot dengan PESTONA dosis 6-8 tutup/tangki atau Natural BVR dosis 30 gr/tangki. Jika ada serangan penyakit jamur Phytopthora dan Cortisium sebarkan Natural GLIO yang sudah dicampur pupuk kandang selama + 1 minggu pada masing-masing pohon

    3. Penanaman
    a. Pengajiran
    – Ajir dibuat dari bambu tinggi 80 – 100 cm
    – Pasang ajir induk sebagai patokan dalam pengajiran selanjutnya
    – Untuk meluruskan ajir gunakan tali sehingga diperoleh jarak tanam yang sama

    b. Lubang Tanam
    – Ukuran lubang tanam 60 x 60 x 60 cm pada akhir musim hujan
    – Berikan pupuk kandang yang dicampur dengan tanah (1:1) ditambah pupuk TSP 1-5 gram per lubang

    c. Tanam Bibit
    – Pada saat bibit kakao ditanam pohon naungan harus sudah tumbuh baik dan naungan sementara sudah berumur 1 tahun
    – Penanaman kakao dengan system tumpang sari tidak perlu naungan, misalnya tumpang sari dengan pohon kelapa
    – Bibit dipindahkan ke lapangan sesuai dengan jenisnya, untuk kakao Mulia ditanam setelah bibit umur 6 bulan, Kakao Lindak umur 4-5 bulan
    – Penanaman saat hujan sudah cukup dan persiapan naungan harus sempurna. Saat pemindahan sebaiknya bibit kakao tidak tengah membentuk daun muda (flush)

    4. Pemeliharaan Tanaman
    a. Penyiraman dilakukan 2 kali sehari (pagi dan sore) sebanyak 2-5 liter/pohon
    b.Dibuat lubang pupuk disekitar tanaman dengan cara dikoak. Pupuk dimasukkan dalam lubang pupuk kemudian ditutup kembali. Dosis pupuk lihat dalam tabel di samping ini :Catatan: Akan lebih baik pemberian diselingi/ditambah SUPER NASA 1-2 kali/tahun dengan dosis 1 botol untuk + 200 tanaman. 1 botol SUPER NASA diencerkan dalam 2 liter (2000 ml) air dijadikan larutan induk. Kemudian setiap 1 liter air diberi 10 ml larutan induk tadi untuk penyiraman setiap pohon.

    Tabel Pemupukan Tanaman Coklat

    UMUR
    (bulan)
    Dosis pupuk Makro (per ha)

    Urea
    (kg)

    TSP
    (kg)

    MOP/ KCl (kg)

    Kieserite (MgSO4)
    (kg)

    2
    15
    15
    8
    8

    6
    15
    15
    8
    8

    10
    25
    25
    12
    12

    14
    30
    30
    15
    15

    18
    30
    30
    45
    15

    22
    30
    30
    45
    15

    28
    160
    250
    250
    60

    32
    160
    200
    250
    60

    36
    140
    250
    250
    80

    42
    140
    200
    250
    80

    Dst
    Dilakukan analisa tanah

    Dosis POC NASA mulai awal tanam :

    0 – 24
    2-3 tutup/ diencerkan secukupnya dan siramkan sekitar pangkal batang
    setiap 4 – 5 bulan sekali

    > 24
    3-4 tutup/ diencerkan secukupnya dan siramkan sekitar pangkal batang
    setiap 3 – 4 bulan sekali ( sesekali bisa juga disemprotkan ke tanaman )

    Dosis POC NASA pada tanaman yang sudah produksi tetapi tidak dari awal memakai POC NASA :
    – Tahap 1 : Aplikasikan 3 – 4 kali berturut-turut dengan interval 1-2 bln, Dosis 3-4 tutup/ pohon
    – Tahap 2 : Aplikasikan setiap 3-4 bulan sekali, Dosis 3-4 tutup/ pohon

    5.Pengendalian Hama & Penyakit

    a. Ulat Kilan ( Hyposidea infixaria; Famili : Geometridae ), menyerang pada umur 2-4 bulan. Serangan berat mengakibatkan daun muda tinggal urat daunnya saja. Pengendalian dengan PESTONA dosis 5 – 10 cc / liter.

    b. Ulat Jaran / Kuda ( Dasychira inclusa, Familia : Limanthriidae ), ada bulu-bulu gatal pada bagian dorsalnya menyerupai bentuk bulu (rambut) pada leher kuda, terdapat pada marke 4 dan 5 berwarna putih atau hitam, sedang ulatnya coklat atau coklat kehitam-hitaman. Pengendalian dengan musuh alami predator Apanteles mendosa dan Carcelia spp, semprot PESTONA.

    c. Parasa lepida dan Ploneta diducta (Ulat Srengenge), serangan dilakukan silih berganti karena kedua species ini agak berbeda siklus hidup maupun cara meletakkan kokonnya, sehingga masa berkembangnya akan saling bergantian. Serangan tertinggi pada daun muda, kuncup yang merupakan pusat kehidupan dan bunga yang masih muda. Siklus hidup Ploneta diducta 1 bulan, Parasa lepida lebih panjang dari pada Ploneta diducta. Pengendalian dengan PESTONA.

    d. Kutu – kutuan ( Pseudococcus lilacinus ), kutu berwarna putih. Simbiosis dengan semut hitam. Gejala serangan : infeksi pada pangkal buah di tempat yang terlindung, selanjutnya perusakan ke bagian buah yang masih kecil, buah terhambat dan akhirnya mengering lalu mati. Pengendalian : tanaman terserang dipangkas lalu dibakar, dengan musuh alami predator; Scymus sp, Semut hitam, parasit Coccophagus pseudococci Natural BVR 30 gr/ 10 liter air atau PESTONA.

    e. Helopeltis antonii, menusukkan ovipositor untuk meletakkan telurnya ke dalam buah yang masih muda, jika tidak ada buah muda hama menyerang tunas dan pucuk daun muda. Serangga dewasa berwarna hitam, sedang dadanya merah, bagian menyerupai tanduk tampak lurus. Ciri serangan, kulit buah ada bercak-bercak hitam dan kering, pertumbuhan buah terhambat, buah kaku dan sangat keras serta jelek bentuknya dan buah kecil kering lalu mati. Pengendalian dilakukan dengan PESTONA dosis 5-10 cc / lt (pada buah terserang), hari pertama semprot stadia imago, hari ke-7 dilakukan ulangan pada telurnya dan pada hari ke-17 dilakukan terhadap nimfa yang masih hidup, sehingga pengendalian benar-benar efektif, sanitasi lahan, pembuangan buah terserang.

    f. Cacao Mot ( Ngengat Buah ), Acrocercops cranerella (Famili ; Lithocolletidae). Buah muda terserang hebat, warna kuning pucat, biji dalam buah tidak dapat mengembang dan lengket. Pengendalian : sanitasi lingkungan kebun, menyelubungi buah coklat dengan kantong plastik yang bagian bawahnya tetap terbuka (kondomisasi), pelepasan musuh alami semut hitam dan jamur antagonis Beauveria bassiana ( BVR) dengan cara disemprotkan, semprot dengan PESTONA.

    g. Penyakit Busuk Buah (Phytopthora palmivora), gejala serangan dari ujung buah atau pangkal buah nampak kecoklatan pada buah yang telah besar dan buah kecil akan langsung mati. Pengendalian : membuang buah terserang dan dibakar, pemangkasan teratur, semprot dengan Natural GLIO.

    h. Jamur Upas ( Upasia salmonicolor ), menyerang batang dan cabang. Pengendalian : kerok dan olesi batang atau cabang terserang dengan Natural GLIO+HORMONIK, pemangkasan teratur, serangan berlanjut dipotong lalu dibakar.
    Catatan : Jika pengendalian hama penyakit dengan menggunakan pestisida alami belum mengatasi dapat dipergunakan pestisida kimia yang dianjurkan. Agar penyemprotan pestisida kimia lebih merata dan tidak mudah hilang oleh air hujan tambahkan Perekat Perata AERO 810, dosis + 5 ml (1/2 tutup)/tangki.

    6. Pemangkasan
    – Pemangkasan ditujukan pada pembentukan cabang yang seimbang dan pertumbuhan vegetatif yang baik. Pohon pelindung juga dilakukan pemangkasan agar percabangan dan daunnya tumbuh tinggi dan baik. Pemangkasan ada beberapa macam yaitu :
    – Pangkas Bentuk, dilakukan umur 1 tahun setelah muncul cabang primer (jorquet) atau sampai umur 2 tahun dengan meninggalkan 3 cabang primer yang baik dan letaknya simetris.
    – Pangkas Pemeliharaan, bertujuan mengurangi pertumbuhan vegetatif yang berlebihan dengan cara menghilangkan tunas air (wiwilan) pada batang pokok atau cabangnya.
    – Pangkas Produksi, bertujuan agar sinar dapat masuk tetapi tidak secara langsung sehingga bunga dapat terbentuk. Pangkas ini tergantung keadaan dan musim, sehingga ada pangkas berat pada musim hujan dan pangkas ringan pada musim kemarau.
    Pangkas Restorasi, memotong bagian tanaman yang rusak dan memelihara tunas air atau dapat dilakukan dengan side budding.

    7. Panen
    Saat petik persiapkan rorak-rorak dan koordinasi pemetikan. Pemetikan dilakukan terhadap buah yang masak tetapi jangan terlalu masak. Potong tangkai buah dengan menyisakan 1/3 bagian tangkai buah. Pemetikan sampai pangkal buah akan merusak bantalan bunga sehingga pembentukan bunga terganggu dan jika hal ini dilakukan terus menerus, maka produksi buah akan menurun. Buah yang dipetik umur 5,5 – 6 bulan dari berbunga, warna kuning atau merah. Buah yang telah dipetik dimasukkan dalam karung dan dikumpulkan dekat rorak. Pemetikan dilakukan pada pagi hari dan pemecahan siang hari. Pemecahan buah dengan memukulkan pada batu hingga pecah. Kemudian biji dikeluarkan dan dimasukkan dalam karung, sedang kulit dimasukkan dalam rorak yang tersedia.

    8. Pengolahan Hasil
    Fermentasi, tahap awal pengolahan biji kakao. Bertujuan mempermudah menghilangkan pulp, menghilangkan daya tumbuh biji, merubah warna biji dan mendapatkan aroma dan cita rasa yang enak.
    Pengeringan, biji kakao yang telah difermentasi dikeringkan agar tidak terserang jamur dengan sinar matahari langsung (7-9 hari) atau dengan kompor pemanas suhu 60-700C (60-100 jam). Kadar air yang baik kurang dari 6 %.
    Sortasi, untuk mendapatkan ukuran tertentu dari biji kakao sesuai permintaan. Syarat mutu biji kakao adalah tidak terfermentasi maksimal 3 %, kadar air maksimal 7%, serangan hama penyakit maksimal 3 % dan bebas kotoran. Prospek Komoditas

    3. Ekspor Kakao

    Pada 2011 produksi kakao dunia diperkirakan mencapai 4,05 juta ton atau tumbuh melambat menjadi 1,9% rata-rata per tahun (2007-2011), akibat makin tingginya ketidak-seimbangan iklim global yang pada akhirnya menyebabkan rendahnya produktivitas kakao.

    Selain itu melambatnya pertumbuhan produksi juga disebabkan masalah regulasi dan politik yang terjadi pada negara-negara produsen utama.
    Sementara konsumsi dunia pada 2011 diperkirakan akan lebih tinggi dari produksi yang mencapai 4,1 juta ton. Pertumbuhan rata-rata sepanjang 2007-2012 diperkirakan mencapai 2,7% per tahun. ICCO memperkirakan dalam jangka panjang akan terjadi defisit kakao dunia sekitar 10-50 ribu ton setiap tahun akibat makin tingginya konsumsi seperti tertera pada grafik 4 berikut.
    Grafik 7. Proyeksi Produksi dan Konsumsi Kakao Dunia 2007-2011 (juta ton)

    Sumber : ICCO (International Cocoa Organization)
    ICCO memperkirakan produksi kakao Indonesia di tahun 2011 akan mencapai 561 ribu ton/tahun atau tumbuh rata-rata 2,3% per tahun. Sementara itu Pantai Gading sebagai pemasok/ produsen terbesar di dunia diperkirakan tumbuh melamban hanya mencapai 1,3% per tahun akibat adanya regulasi pemerintah untuk mengurangi subsidi komoditas ini. Sebaliknya Ghana diperkirakan akan mengalami pertumbuhan produksi yang cukup tinggi, mencapai 4% per tahun yang disebabkan adanya insentif harga dari pemerintah. Disisi konsumsi, ICCO memperkirakan pada tahun 2011 AS, Jerman, Inggris, Perancis, Rusia dan Jepang merupakan negara konsumsi utama kakao dunia. AS diperkirakan akan menguasai konsumsi kakao dunia dengan pertumbuhan konsumsi 16,2% per tahun. Pertumbuhan konsumsi tertinggi selama 2007-2011 dicapai Jepang dan Rusia dengan pertumbuhan 32,6% dan 28,6% pertahun
    Selanjutnya, ICCO juga memperkirakan pada 2008 harga kakao akan berada pada level USD1.750/ton dan akan terus meningkat pada 2009 yang mencapai USD1.785/ton. Pada 2012 dan seterusnya harga diperkirakan akan lebih dari USD1.800/ton.
    Peluang Pembiayaan Perbankan
    Direktorat Jendral Perkebunan memperkirakan hingga tahun 2025 biaya pengembangan kakao Indonesia memerlukan biaya sekitar Rp16,72 triliun untuk rehabilitasi tanaman, peremajaan serta perluasan lahan. Usaha rehabilitasi diperkirakan akan menghabiskan dana investasi sebesar Rp10 juta/ha dan akan menghasilkan NPV

    SAYA JUGA MENGIRIM KE E-MAIL BAPAK.
    TERIMA KASIH.

    Komentar oleh kobeky | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  6. Nama : Derry Hariansyah
    NIM : C1B009012
    SP MAG
    Dosen Pengajar : Johaness Simatupang
    Saya termasuk yang 6 orang itu pak.
    SOAL
    Deskripsikan luas lahan, produktivitas dan ekspor 5 tahun terakhir.

    Jawab :
    LUAS LAHAN
    Standar yang biasa dilakukan, kapasitas pembibitan 1 ha kelapa sawit dapat menyediakan bibit tanaman untuk kebun seluas 71 ha. Perkebunan kelapa sawit dapat dibangun di daerah bekas hutan, daerah bekas alang-alang, atau bekas perkebunan. Daerah-daerah tersebut memiliki topografi yang berbeda-beda. Namun, yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pemukaan areal perkebunan adalah tetap terjaganya lapisan olah tanah. Selain itu, harus memperhatikan urutan pekerjaan, alat, dan teknik pelaksanaannya. Sebelum melakukan pembukaan lahan terlebih dahulu dilakukan identifikasi vegetasi yang ada pada
    lahan tersebut. Dari data yang ada maka dapat ditentukan apakah pembukaan lahan dilakukan secara manual, manual – mekanis atau secara mekanis saja. Pembukaan areal perkebunan kelapa sawit pada daerah alang-alang dapat dilakukan dengan cara mekanis dan khemis, secara mekanis dilakukan dengan cara membajak dan menggaru, secara khemis dilakukan dengan menyemprot alang-alang dengan racun antara lain Dalapon atau Glyphospate. Pembukaan kelapa sawit juga bisa dengan cara konversi yaitu membuka areal perkebunan dari bekas perkebunan lain.
    Metode pembukaan lahan yang sebaiknya dilakukan adalah pembukaan lahan tanpa bakar, karena dengan cara membakar hutan dilarang oleh pemerintah dengan dikeluarkannya SK Dirjen Perkebunan No. 38 tahun 1995, tentang pelarangan membakar hutan. Selain itu alasan menggunakan metode ini adalah:
    • mempertahankan kesuburan tanah,
    • menjamin pengembalian unsur hara,
    • mencegah erosi permukaan tanah, dan
    • membantu pelestarian lingkungan.
    Tahapan untuk pembukaan lahan adalah sebagai berikut : membabat rintisan, mengimas, menebang, merancek, membuat pancang kepala dan membersihkan jalur. Sedangkan tahapan untuk penyiapan lahan adalah : pembuatan teras dan pembuatan benteng (tanggul) sinambung dan rorak. Pembuatan saluran drainase, penanaman tanaman penutup tanah (cover crop), dan pembuatan jalan transportasi.
    Produktifitas
    Kebutuhan, Pemenuhan dan Peluang Pasar Global
    Dari berbagai perkembangan dan kajian yang ada, terlihat bahwa ke depan persaingan dalam usaha perkebunan kelapa sawit bukan saja terjadi antar sesama negara produsen melainkan juga persaingan dengan jenis minyak nabati lainnya. Hal ini jelas terlihat dari gambaran tentang pangsa konsumsi dan produksi minyak nabati terlihat pada Tabel berikut:
    Tabel Pangsa Produksi dan Konsumsi Minyak Nabati Dunia

    Jika ditinjau untuk masing-masing komoditi, diperoleh gambaran bahwa pertumbuhan produksi untuk minyak kelapa sawit pada periode 2003-2007 mengalami kenaikan menjadi 25.340.360 ton (26,5 %) dari total produksi jenis minyak nabati. Perkembangan persentase produksi minyak nabati dunia dapat dilihat pada Gambar 4.1. Begitu juga dengan konsumsi, diperoleh gambaran bahwa pertumbuhan konsumsi yang cukup tinggi terjadi terutama pada tiga jenis minyak nabati yaitu minyak kedelai, minyak kelapa sawit dan minyak kanola. Namun demikian mulai periode 2003-2007 pangsa konsumsi minyak kelapa sawit mengungguli pangsa konsumsi minyak kedelai. Kondisi tersebut diperkirakan masih akan terus berlanjut hingga tahun 2020.

    Dari olahan data berdasarkan sumber oil world masih menunjukkan kekurangan akan kebutuhan produksi minyak goreng sawit hal ini dapat diketahui dari data produksi dan rencana produksi minyak sawit dunia tahun 2003-2007 sebesar 25.340.360 ton (tingkat produksi mencapai 26,5% dari 95.624.000 ton produksi minyak nabati di dunia), sedangkan data konsumsi dan rencana konsumsi tahun 2003-2007 sebesar 25.973.420 ton (tingkat konsumsi mencapai 22% dari 118.061.000 ton konsumsi minyak nabati di dunia). Dari data tersebut diatas masih terdapat kekurangan minyak goreng sawit sebesar 633.060 ton minyak goreng sawit atau setara dengan 844.060 ton CPO atau setara dengan ketersediaan 3.699.913,04 ton TBS per tahunnya.
    EKSPOR
    Ekspor CPO Indonesia pada dekade terakhir meningkat dengan laju antara 7 – 8 % per tahun. Di samping dipengaruhi oleh harga di pasar internasional dan tingkat produksi, kinerja ekspor CPO Indonesia juga sangat dipengaruhi oleh kebijakan pemerintah, khususnya tingkat pajak ekspor. Dengan asumsi tingkat pajak ekspor adalah masih di bawah 5 %, maka ekspor CPO Indonesia diperkirakan akan tumbuh dengan laju 4 – 8 % per tahun pada periode 2000 – 2010 (Gambar 4.3.). Pada periode 2000 – 2005, ekspor akan tumbuh dengan laju 5 % – 8 % per tahun sehingga volume ekspor pada periode tersebut sekitar 5,4 juta ton. Pada periode 2005 – 2010, volume ekspor meningkat dengan laju 4 % – 5 % per tahun yang membuat volume ekspor menjadi 6,79 juta ton pada tahun 2010.

    Berdasarkan sumber data ekspor Badan Pusat Statistik Nasional (BPSN) Tahun 2003 kecenderungan ekspor CPO Nasional meningkat antara lain ke India dengan volume ekspor 1.402.783.354 kg, dengan nilai ekspor US$ 523.183.022, ke Belanda dengan volume ekspor 377.424.630 kg dengan nilai ekspor US$ 129.468.217 dan ke Malaysia volume ekspor 320.528.032 kg dengan nilai ekspor US$ 124.869.906.

    saya juga mengirim ke email bapak.

    Komentar oleh derry hariansyah | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  7. tugas individu MAG yang 2 orang

    nama : agus setiawan – C1B009027

    Differences agribusiness and agribusiness

    Sustainability is a business based on agriculture or other fields that support it, both in upstream and downstream. The mention of “upstream” and “downstream” refers to the basic view that the agribusiness sector work on food chains (food supply chain). Agribusiness, in other words, is the economic outlook for food supply business. As an academic subject, agribusiness learn strategies to benefit by managing aspects of cultivation, supply of raw materials, postharvest, processing, until the marketing stage.
    The term “agribusiness” is absorbed from English: agribusiness, which is a portmanteau of agriculture (agriculture) and business (business). In the Indonesian language is also known variant anglisismenya, agribusiness.
    Agribusiness object can be either plant or animal or other organism. Cultivation is at the core (core) agribusiness, although an agribusiness company does not have to do their own activities. If aquaculture products (yields) used by the managers themselves, is called subsistence farming activities, and is the most primitive agri-business activities. Utilization of itself can mean also sell or exchange to meet daily needs.
    In today’s agri-business development not only covers the food industry alone due to the utilization of agricultural products has been closely related to the pharmaceutical, materials technology, and energy supply. Literally nothing, but agribusiness is misguided use of the word agribusiness. Thus the results of this study may be an additional reference materials for the parties concerned. Discussion and debate (constructive) further studies are needed and can not be avoided in order to produce a more accurate conclusions.
    In today’s agri-business development not only covers the food industry alone due to the utilization of agricultural products has been closely related to the pharmaceutical, materials technology, and energy supply. Agribusiness (wrongly, mistakenly called agribusiness in Indonesia) are human activities that use natural resources for the fulfillment of his life. Agribusiness, in other words, is the outlook for economic activity in agriculture. Agribusiness mmempelajari gain strategy by managing aspects of cultivation, post harvest, processing, until the marketing stage. Broadly, the agribusiness means “natural resource-based businesses”. Agribusiness object can be either plant or animal or other organism. Cultivation activities included in the upstream section of agribusiness. If aquaculture products (yields) used by the managers themselves, is called subsistence farming activities, and is the most primitive agri-business activities. Utilization of itself can mean also sell or exchange to meet daily needs. In a broad sense includes not only the agri food industry alone. Along with the development of technology, utilization of agricultural products is closely related to pharmaceuticals, materials technology, and energy supply. in other words is part of the Agribusiness Agribusiness but understanding is not understanding Agribusiness Agribusiness Agribusiness .. just the mention of the wrong word in the Indonesian language. Agriculture
    is the utilization of biological resources is done manusiauntuk produce foodstuffs, industrial raw materials, or energy sources, as well as to manage the environment.

    Conclusion

    Agribusiness (wrongly, mistakenly called agribusiness in Indonesia) are human activities that use natural resources for the fulfillment of his life. Agribusiness, in other words, is the outlook for economic activity in agriculture. Agribusiness mmempelajari gain strategy by managing aspects of cultivation, post harvest, processing, until the marketing stage. Broadly, the agribusiness means “natural resource-based businesses”.
    Agribusiness object can be either plant or animal or other organism. Cultivation activities included in the upstream section of agribusiness. If aquaculture products (yields) used by the managers themselves, is called subsistence farming activities, and is the most primitive agri-business activities. Utilization of itself can mean also sell or exchange to meet daily needs.
    In a broad sense includes not only the agri food industry alone. Along with the development of technology, utilization of agricultural products is closely related to pharmaceuticals, materials technology, and energy supply.

    in other words ..
    Agribusiness Agribusiness is a part of ..
    but understanding is not understanding Agribusiness Agribusiness ..
    Agribusiness is simply the mention of the wrong word in Indonesian ..

    Komentar oleh agus setiawan | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  8. Name: Agus Setiawan
    Nim: C1B009027
    Prihal: Task MAG mid semesters of 6 people

    Productivity of cocoa last 5 years
    (2006-2011) and land area

    Cocoa is a crop plant perkebunaan promising prospect. But if the land is increasingly hard factors and poor nutrients, especially micro-nutrients and natural hormones, climatic factors and weather factors, pests and plant diseases, and other maintenance factors are not considered then the level of production and quality will be low.
    PT. Natural Nusantara trying to help cocoa farmers in order to improve its productivity to compete in the era of globalization with the program increased production in quantity and quality. Department of Agriculture declared Indonesia cocoa production has declined since 2006, from before about 1000 kilograms per hectare, is currently only capable of producing 680 kilograms per hectare. reduction (productivity) have occurred up to 110 kilograms per hektare.Salah of the causes of declining productivity, because a lot of cocoa in Indonesia is already old. The government allocated Rp 13 trillion for productivity improvement programs and quality cocoa quality of Indonesia. The funding of which is used to rejuvenate an area of ​​75 hectares Kako plants in nine provinces. A number of regions recorded a center for cocoa in Indonesia is East Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, Papua, and Bali. With this rejuvenation program, the government hopes to boost the productivity of cocoa rose to 1,500 kilograms per hectare. During the period 2006 to 2011, exports of Indonesian cocoa ranged from 400 to 800 tons per month. American States and Europe is still a potential market of cocoa. However, cocoa exports to the U.S. rate is now declining. In fact, before the United States is Indonesia’s largest importer of cocoa, followed Malaysia.Sekarang inverted, of the total exports of cocoa Indonesia, Malaysia 30 percent, Americans 20 percent,
    Secretary General of the Indonesian Cocoa Association (Askindo) Zulhefi Sikumbang said the export value of Indonesian cocoa is currently reached 360 thousand tons per month. He hopes exports will increase at the end of 2011. November-December is the month of harvest kakao.Ekspor these commodities, according to him, giving the country foreign exchange of U.S. $ 140 million per year. In the world market price of cocoa Indonesia reached U.S. $ 3,000 per ton. However, due to falling productivity and quality, now it costs only U.S. $ 1,900.

    COCOA PLANTING LAND MEDIA
    a. Irrigation
    – Water is made from bamboo height 80-100 cm
    – Replace the stem marker as a benchmark in the next pengajiran
    – To use the stakes straighten the rope in order to obtain the same spacing

    b. Planting holes
    – The size of planting holes 60 x 60 x 60 cm at the end of the rainy season
    – Give manure mixed with soil (1:1) plus 1-5 grams of TSP fertilizer per hole

    c. Planting Seeds
    – At the shade of trees planted cocoa seedlings have been growing well and the shade while the 1-year-old cocoa cultivation with intercropping system does not need shade, such as intercropping with coconut tree-seedlings transferred to the field according to its kind, to cocoa Highness planted after seedling age 6 months, 4-5 months old Lindak Cocoa-planting when the rain was enough shade and preparations must be perfect. When the removal of cocoa seedlings should not form the middle of young leaves (flush)
    d. Watering is done 2 times a day (morning and evening) as much as 2-5 liters / tree

    e. Fertilizer plants around the hole created by dikoak. Fertilizer is inserted in the hole and then closed again fertilizers. Dose of fertilizer in the table next to see this: Note: It would be better punctuated delivery / plus NASA SUPER 1-2 times / year with a dose of 1 bottle to + 200 plants. 1 bottle SUPER NASA diluted in 2-liter (2000 ml) of water used as mother liquor. Then every 1 liter of water was given 10 ml of mother liquor was for watering each tree.

    Pest & Disease Control
    a. Caterpillars span (Hyposidea infixaria; Family: Geometridae),
    attack at the age of 2-4 months. The attack resulted in severe leaf veins of young leaves to live alone. Control with a dose PESTONA 5-10 cc / liter.
    b. Caterpillars Jaran / Horse (Dasychira inclusa, Familia: Limanthriidae), there are hairs on the dorsal itch like the shape of fur (hair) on the neck of a horse, is at the marke 4 and 5 are white or black, brown or brown caterpillars are blackish . Control with natural enemies and predators mendosa Carcelia Apanteles spp, spray PESTONA.
    c. Parasa lepida and Ploneta diducta (Silkworm Srengenge), carried out the attack after another because both species are quite different life cycles and how to put kokonnya, so that future development will take turns. The highest attack on the young leaves, buds which is central to life and flowers are still young. The life cycle of Ploneta diducta 1 month, Parasa lepida longer than Ploneta diducta. Control with PESTONA.
    d. Fleas – fleas (Pseudococcus lilacinus), white lice. Symbiosis with black ants. Attack symptoms: infection at the base of the fruit in a protected place, further destruction to the young fruit, dried fruit and stunted and eventually die. Control: plants pruned attacked and burned, with the natural enemies of predators; Scymus sp, black ants, parasitic Coccophagus pseudococci Natural BVR 30 g / 10 liters of water or PESTONA.
    e. Helopeltis antonii, poking her ovipositor to lay their eggs in young fruit, if there are no pests attacking fruit buds and young shoots of young leaves. Adult insect is black, his chest was red, resembling the horns look straight. Characteristic attacks, rind there are dark patches and dry, stunted fruit growth, fruit stiff and very hard and ugly shape and small fruit dry and then die. Controls performed with 5-10 doses PESTONA cc / l (in fruit affected), the first day of spray stadia imago, day-to-7 conducted tests on eggs and on day-17 made to the nymphs who are still alive, so that truly effective control , field sanitation, disposal of infected fruit.
    f. Cacao Mot (Fruit Moth), Acrocercops cranerella (Family; Lithocolletidae). Fruits attacked by a great young, pale yellow color, seeds in the fruit can not expand and sticky. Control: environmental sanitation garden, chocolate covered fruit with plastic bags that the bottom remains open (kondomisasi), the release of natural enemies of black ants and the fungus Beauveria bassiana antagonist (BVR) by means of spraying, spray with PESTONA.
    g. Fruit Rot Diseases (Phytopthora palmivora), symptoms of an attack from the tip of the fruit or fruit appears brown at the base of the fruit that has large and small fruit would soon die. Control: dispose of infected fruit and baked, regular pruning, spray with Natural GLIO.
    h. Mushrooms Upas (Upasia salmonicolor), attacking the stem and branches. Control: scrape and rub the trunk or branches attacked by Natural GLIO + HORMONIK, regular trimming, continue the attack is cut and burned. Note: If the pest and disease control by using natural pesticides can not cope with the recommended use of chemical pesticides. In order for the spraying of chemical pesticides is more evenly distributed and not easily lost by rainwater add Adhesives Straighten AERO 810, dose + 5 ml (1 / 2 cap) / tank.
    Harvest
    When preparing quotes and coordination rorak rorak-picking. Harvesting carried out on a ripe fruit but not too ripe. Cut the stem of the fruit, leaving 1 / 3 of the fruit stalk. Picking up the base of the fruit will damage the bearing flowers that flower formation disturbed and if this is done continuously, the fruit production will decline. Fruit is picked ages 5.5 to 6 months of flowering, yellow or red. The fruit is freshly picked and put into sacks collected near rorak. Harvesting done in the morning and afternoon solving. Solving the fruit with a bang on the rock until the break. Then the seeds are removed and put in sacks, skins are included in rorak available.
    Processing Results
    Fermentation, the initial stage of processing cocoa beans. Aimed at eliminating pulp easier, eliminating the ability to grow seeds, seed color change and get the aroma and flavor enak.Pengeringan, fermented cocoa beans that have been dried so as not attacked by fungus in direct sunlight (7-9 days) or with a heating stove at 60 -700C (60-100 hours). Good water levels less than 6%. Sorting, to obtain a certain measure of cocoa beans on demand. Terms quality fermented cocoa beans is not a maximum of 3%, maximum 7% moisture content, pest and disease-free up to 3% impurities.

    Komentar oleh agus setiawan | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

    • Hii, for all my students send me please the group member.

      Komentar oleh johannessimatupang | Desember 2, 2011 | Balas

  9. Tugas yang 6 0rang

    nama:hendri

    nim : c1b009016

    Pertumbuhan luas kebun kakao indonesia

    Luas perkebunan kakao di Indonesia terus meningkat sepanjang 5 tahun terakhir. Pada tahun 2007 luas perkebunan kakao di Indonesia mencapai 1379279 Ha. Luas perkebunan ini mengalami pertumbuhan sebesar 6.8 persen menjadi 1473259 Ha. Luas perkebunan kakao kembali bertambah menjadi 1592982 Ha atau tumbuh 8.1 persen pada tahun berikutnya. Secara rata-rata pertumbuhan luas perkebunan kakao di Indonesia dari tahun 2006 hingga tahun 2009 adalah 8.1 persen.

    Perkebunan kakao di Indonesia didominasi oleh perkebunan rakyat yakni perkebunan yang dimiliki masyarakat. Kepemilikan perkebunan ini rata-rata per petani sangat kecil yakni 1 Ha per petani. Luas perkebunan kakao yang dimiliki masyarakat sekitar 92,7 persen dari luas total perkebunan kakao di Indonesia pada tahun 2009 yang mencapai 1.592.982 Ha.

    Beberapa wilayah pengembangan lahan perkebunan kakao di Indonesia yang potensial adalah di Kaltim, Sulteng, Sultra, Maluku, dan Papua dengan luas sekitar 6 juta Ha.

    Jenis tanaman kakao yang diusahakan di Indonesia sebagian besar adalah jenis kakao lindak dengan sentra produksi utama adalah Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tenggara dan Sulawesi Tengah. Disamping itu, juga diusahakan jenis kakao mulia oleh perkebunan besar milik negara di Jawa Timur dan Jawa Tengah.

    Beberapa program terkait pengembangan perkebunan kakao yang dicananangkan pemerintah adalah peremajaan perkebunan seluas 70 ribu Ha, rehabilitasi 235 ribu hektare lahan kakao, intensifikasi pada 145 ribu hektare lahan, serta dan pengendalian hama pada 450 ribu hektare lahan kakao dalam tiga tahun sejak 2009 hingga 2011. Pemerintah menitikberatkan peningkatan kapasitas produksi kakao di wilayah Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Bali, Maluku dan Papua.

    Sulawesi miliki perkebunan terluas

    Perkebunan kakao di Indonesia sebagian besar terletak di Pulau Sulawesi. Luas perkebunan ini sekitar 953691 Ha atau 60 persen dari seluruh perkebunan kakao di Indonesia. Wilayah terbesar kedua adalah di Pulau Sumatera yakni sekitar 18 persen dengan luas mencapai 300461 Ha.

    Pulau Jawa dan Maluku& Papua masing-masing memiliki sekitar 6 persen perkebunan kakao. Sementara sisanya terletak di Nusa Tenggara sekitar 5 persen dan Kalimantan sekitar 3,5 persen.
    eksport
    Kakao merupakan salah satu komoditas ekspor yang mampu memberikan kontribusi di dalam upaya peningkatan devisa Indonesia. Komoditas kakao menempati peringkat ke tiga ekspor sektor perkebunan dalam menyumbang devisa negara, setelah komoditas karet dan CPO. Pada 2006 ekspor kakao mencapai US$ 975 juta atau meningkat 24,2% dibanding tahun sebelumnya.
    Iklim dan kontur tanah Indonesia (terutama di Sulawesi dan Sumatera) sangat sesuai untuk pengembangan tanaman kakao. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan luas lahan yang terus meningkat dan produktivitas yang terus membaik. Harga komoditas ini juga terus meningkat dan berada pada level yang tinggi yang menyebabkan banyak petani beralih ke komoditas ini.
    Dengan memperhatikan tinggi dan terus meningkatnya permintaan dunia terhadap komoditas kakao, maka diperlukan berbagai upaya pengembangan. Dirjen Perkebunan memproyeksikan biaya pengembangan kakao memerlukan sekitar Rp 16,72 triliun hingga tahun 2025, yang terbagi dalam 2 periode yaitu periode 2005-2010 serta 2010-2025, terdiri dari tiga tahap yakni rehabilitasi, peremajaan dan perluasan lahan. Sementara untuk pengembangan agribisnis kakao tahun 2005-2010 saja dibutuhkan biaya Rp 5,36 triliun yang melibatkan petani, pengusaha dan pemerintah.
    Kinerja Komoditas Kakao Dunia
    Pertumbuhan produksi kakao dunia relatif tinggi dengan rata-rata sebesar 5,8% per tahunnya, sementara konsumsi tumbuh 4,8% dengan kecenderungan terus meningkat. Indonesia merupakan pemasok ketiga terbesar di dunia setelah Pantai Gading dan Ghana dengan market share 13,6% dari total produksi dunia. Hingga tahun 2011, ICCO (International Cocoa Organization) memperkirakan produksi kakao dunia akan mencapai 4,05 juta ton, sementara konsumsi akan mencapai 4,1 juta ton, sehingga akan terjadi defisit sekitar 50 ribu ton per tahun. Hal ini diperkirakan akan terus berlangsung pada tahun-tahun selanjutnya.
    Pada 2005, produksi kakao dunia sempat mengalami penurunan, akibat penurunan produksi di Pantai Gading. Namun pada 2006, produksi kembali pada level sebelumnya
    dan bahkan lebih tinggi. Sedangkan konsumsi dunia hanya meningkat 4,8% per tahun namun dengan kecenderungan terus meningkat.
    Pemasok utama kakao dunia adalah Pantai Gading (38,3%), Ghana (20,2%) dan Indonesia (13,6%). Pemasok lainnya adalah Kamerun (5,1%), Brasil (4,4%), Nigeria (4,9%) dan Ekuador (3,1%). Walapun sebagai pemasok utama kakao dunia, selama tahun 2002-2006 rata-rata pertumbuhan produksi Pantai Gading relatif rendah yakni hanya 1% per tahun, sebaliknya Ghana tumbuh sangat tinggi 10,5% per tahun. Sementara Indonesia dan Kamerun tumbuh moderat dengan masing-masing meningkat rata-rata 5,1% dan 4% per tahun.

    Di sisi lain konsumen utama kakao dunia adalah Belanda, Amerika Serikat dan Pantai Gading. Ketiga negara tersebut mengkonsumsi 36,2% kakao dunia dengan pertumbuhan 2%-4% per tahun. Namun pertumbuhan tingkat konsumsi tertinggi selama 2004-2006 dicapai Selandia Baru dan Jerman dengan pertumbuhan signifikan sebesar 11% dan 16,1% per tahun. Saat ini 73% pasar kakao olahan (cocoa processing) dunia hanya dikuasai 14 perusahaan. Dari jumlah tersebut hanya ada 5 perusahaan yang menguasai pasar terbesar yaitu Archer-Daniels-Midland (ADM) (15%), Cargill (15%), Barry Callebaut (15%), Blommer (5%) dan Petra Foods (5%). Sedangkan industri olahan coklat (chocolate manufacturing) hanya dikuasai 5 perusahaan yaitu Nestle (10,2%), Ferrero (8,2%), Cadburry-Schweppes (6,1%), Mars (4,9%) dan Hershey (4,6%).
    Data dari ICCO, selama ini harga kakao dunia berfluktuasi dengan kecenderungan terus naik. Pada periode September 2006 hingga Nopember 2006 harga kakao sempat anjlok cukup tajam, namun Desember 2006 kembali naik bahkan pada Juni 2007 telah mencapai US$ 2.017/ ton. Semester II 2007 harga kakao diperkirakan akan menurun, namun di bulan Des 2007 harga kakao kembali meningkat mencapai US$ 2.113/ ton.
    Kinerja Komoditas Kakao Indonesia

    Kinerja komoditas kakao Indonesia relatif baik. Nilai ekspor biji kakao Indonesia pada 2006 mencapai USD975 juta atau meningkat 9,9% per tahun (2002-2006). Ekspor kakao Indonesia sempat mengalami penurunan yang cukup signifikan pada 2003, namun pada 2004 kinerja ekspor komoditas ini kembali meningkat, baik dari sisi volume maupun nilai ekspor. Bahkan volume maupun nilai ekspor yang dicapai selama periode 2005-2006 telah kembali melampaui volume dan nilai ekspor pada 2002. Negara tujuan utama ekspor kakao Indonesia adalah Malaysia, AS, Singapura dan Brasil (hampir 60% ekspor kakao Indonesia ke negara-negara tersebut). Peningkatan ekspor yang signifikan pada tahun 2005-2006 merupakan akibat dari peningkatan volume ekspor yang tinggi dibarengi naiknya harga komoditas. Luas areal perkebunan kakao Indonesia pada 2006 mencapai 1,19 juta hektar 92,8% diantaranya berupa perkebunan rakyat dengan rata-rata pertumbuhan lahan 7,4% per tahun dalam 4 tahun terakhir. Dari 1,19 juta luas lahan tersebut hanya 70% saja yang menghasilkan. Rendahnya luas tanaman yang menghasilkan (TM) disebabkan oleh banyaknya tanaman kakao berusia diatas 25 tahun yang sangat tidak produktif. Namun demikian, pertumbuhan rata-rata luas tanaman yang menghasilkan (TM) selama 4 tahun terakhir lebih tinggi dari pertumbuhan luas lahan, yakni mencapai 8,6% per tahun. Prosentase tertinggi TM terhadap luas lahan dicapai oleh kebun negara yang mencapai 89,4%, sebaliknya kebun swasta dan kebun rakyat relatif rendah.
    Produksi buah kakao tahun 2006 mencapai 779,5 ribu ton atau tumbuh rata-rata 3,8% per tahun dalam 4 tahun terakhir. Produksi didominasi oleh kebun rakyat yang mencapai 92,9% dari total produksi. Jika dibandingkan negara lain, pertumbuhan produksi kakao Indonesia termasuk rendah (Ghana dan Equador masing-masing tumbuh 14,2% dan 10,2%). Produktivitas kebun kakao mencapai 654 kg/ha pada 2006, mengalami penurunan yang cukup tajam bila dibandingkan tahun 2002 yang mencapai 726 kg/ha.
    Sulawesi Selatan merupakan pemasok/ produsen utama kakao Indonesia, diikuti Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, dan Sulawesi Barat. Dari ke empat propinsi tersebut, Sulawesi Selatan merupakan propinsi dengan pertumbuhan tertinggi yang mencapai 8,6%. Di luar propinsi diatas, pertumbuhan produksi tertinggi terjadi di propinsi Aceh, Lampung, dan Kalimatan Timur dengan rata-rata pertumbuhan masing-masing 12,5%, 14,3% dan 16,3%. Jika dilihat lebih rinci, sentra kakao terdapat di Kabupaten Kolaka Utara, Parigi Mountong, Kolaka, Luwu Utara, Mamuju, Polewali Mandar, Donggala, dan Poso. Ke delapan daerah/kabupaten tersebut menguasai hampir 50% produksi kakao Indonesia
    Harga komoditas kakao yang terus meningkat dan berada pada level yang tinggi merupakan salah satu daya tarik bagi petani untuk beralih ke komoditas ini. Akibat terus membaiknya hasil dari usaha perkebunan kakao, pada 2006 petani yang terlibat dalam perkebunan kakao mencapai lebih dari 1,1 juta orang dan meningkat rata-rata 4,5% per tahun (selama 2004-2006). Di era tahun 90-an, pabrik pengolahan kakao berjumlah 15 pabrik dengan kapasitas penggilingan sebesar 293.000 ton per tahun. Namun akibat tingginya beban pajak ekspor kakao olahan, dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, jumlah pabrik yang rutin melakukan penggilingan menyusut menjadi hanya 6 pabrik dengan kapasitas hanya 100.000 ton per tahun.
    produktivitas
    Produktivitas tanaman kakao melalui peremajaan meningkat 249% dari 318 kilogram (kg) per hektare (ha) menjadi 1.111 kg per ha. Untuk program rehabilitasi, terjadi peningkatan produktifitas dari 422 kg per ha menjadi 1.612 kg per ha atau naik sekitar 282%. Adapun program intensifikasi naik 101% dari dari 550 kg per ha menjadi 1.103 kg per ha.
    pendapatan petani juga meningkat setelah adanya program Gernas kakao. Untuk program peremajaan, pendapatan petani meningkat 306,5% dari Rp 3,6 juta per ha per tahun menjadi Rp 10,5 juta per ha per tahun. Petani yang mengikuti program rehabilitasi, Kementan menyatakan terjadi kenaikan pendapatan dari Rp 4,3 juta per ha per tahun menjadi Rp 17,5 juta per ha per tahun.
    Sedangkan pendapatan petani yang ikut program intensifikasi naik dari Rp 4,9 juta per ha per tahun menjadi Rp 10,5 juta per ha per tahun. Hitungan ini diambil dengan basis harga kakao sekitar Rp 15.000 per kg.
    Sebelumnya, Ketua Asosiasi Petani kakao Indonesia (Apkai) A. Sulaiman Husain mengatakan program peningkatan produksi kakao melalui gernas memang membantu peningkatan produksi. Ia mencontohkan, tahun 2009 lalu produktivitas kakao di Sulawesi Selatan sebesar 700 kg per ha. Tapi tahun 2010 lalu, tingkat produktivitas meningkat menjadi 784,22 kg per ha. “Produksi kakao Sulawesi Selatan tahun 2009 sebesar 263.530 ton. Tahun 2013 nanti Tahun 2011, ICCO memperkirakan produksi biji kakao dunia akan mencapai 4,05 juta ton, sementara konsumsi akan mencapai 4,1 juta ton, sehingga akan terjadi defisit sekitar 50 ribu ton per tahun. Hal ini diperkirakan akan terus berlangsung pada tahun-tahun selanjutnya. Pertumbuhan produksi kakao dunia relatif tinggi dengan rata-rata sebesar 5,8% per tahunnya, sementara konsumsi tumbuh 4,8% dengan kecenderungan terus meningkat.
    Indonesia ditargetkan mampu memproduksi dua juta ton kakao pada 2020 mendatang. Pemerintah mencanangkan Indonesia sebagai penghasil biji kakao terbesar dunia pada 2014. Kementerian Pertanian menargetkan peningkatan produksi biji kakao hingga dua kali lipat pada 2014 dibanding 2010.Indonesia hanya mampu memproduksi 800 ribu ton kakao, sedangkan di 2014 akan digenjot hingga 1,6 juta ton, atau 300 ribu ton lebih banyak dibandingkan rata-rata produksi Pantai Gading dan Ghana yang mencapai 1,3 juta ton biji kakao.
    Berdasarkan data Kementerian Pertanian yang diperoleh duniaindustri.com, prospek produksi biji kakao Indonesia cerah karena terus mengalami peningkatan tiap tahunnya. Pada 2009, produksi mencapai 700 ribu ton lalu meningkat jadi 800 ribu ton pada 2010. Sedangkan pada 2011 target produksi mencapai 1,074 juta ton. Untuk mencapai target ini, pemerintah akan melakukan tiga strategi, yaitu dengan peremajaan, rehabilitasi, serta intensifikasi.(Tim redaksi 01) ditarget 300.000 ton,”.

    Komentar oleh hendri | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  10. Nama :Agus Setiawan
    Nim : C1B009027
    Prihal :Tugas MAG yang 6 orang

    Produktivitas komoditas kakao 5 tahun terakhir
    ( 2006-2011) – luas lahan –
    Tanaman Kakao merupakan tanaman perkebunaan berprospek menjanjikan. Tetapi jika faktor tanah yang semakin keras dan miskin unsur hara terutama unsur hara mikro dan hormon alami, faktor iklim dan cuaca, faktor hama dan penyakit tanaman, serta faktor pemeliharaan lainnya tidak diperhatikan maka tingkat produksi dan kualitas akan rendah.
    PT. Natural Nusantara berusaha membantu petani kakao agar mampu meningkatkan produktivitasnya agar dapat bersaing di era globalisasi dengan program peningkatan produksi secara kuantitas dan kualitas . Departemen Pertanian menyatakan produksi kakao Indonesia terus mengalami penurunan sejak tahun 2006, dari sebelumnya sekitar 1.000 kilogram per hektare, saat ini hanya mampu memproduksi 680 kilogram per hektare. penurunan (produktivitas) pernah terjadi hingga 110 kilogram per hektare.Salah satu penyebab menurunnya produktivitas, karena banyak tanaman kakao di Indonesia yang sudah tua. Pemerintah mengalokasikan dana sebesar Rp 13 triliun untuk program peningkatan produktivitas dan kualitas mutu kakao Indonesia. Dana tersebut di antaranya digunakan untuk melakukan peremajaan tanaman kako seluas 75 hektare di sembilan provinsi. Sejumlah daerah yang tercatat menjadi sentra kakao di Indonesia adalah Nusa Tenggara Timur, Sulawesi, Papua, dan Bali. Dengan program peremajaan ini,pemerintah berharap produktivitas kakao dapat terdongkrak naik menjadi 1.500 kilogram per hektarenya. Selama kurun waktu tahun 2006 hingga 2011, ekspor kakao indonesia berkisar antara 400 hingga 800 ton per bulan. Negara-negara Amerika dan Eropa masih menjadi pasar potensial kakao. Namun demikian, angka ekspor kakao ke Amerika saat ini telah menurun. Padahal, sebelumnya Amerika merupakan importir kakao Indonesia terbesar, disusul kemudian Malaysia.Sekarang terbalik, dari total ekspor kakao Indonesia, Malaysia 30 persen, Amerika 20 persen,
    Sekretaris Jenderal Assosiasi Kakao Indonesia (Askindo) Zulhefi Sikumbang mengatakan nilai ekspor kakao Indonesia saat ini mencapai 360 ribu ton per bulan. Dia berharap ekspor ini akan mengalami peningkatan di akhir tahun 2011 ini. Bulan November-Desember merupakan bulan panen kakao.Ekspor komoditas ini, menurut dia, memberikan devisa pada negara sebesar US$ 140 juta per tahun. Di pasaran dunia harga kakao Indonesia mencapai US$ 3.000 per ton. Namun akibat turunnya produktivitas dan mutu, saat ini harganya hanya mencapai US$ 1.900.

    MEDIA LAHAN PENANAMAN KAKAO
    a. Pengairan
    – Air dibuat dari bambu tinggi 80 – 100 cm
    – Pasang ajir induk sebagai patokan dalam pengajiran selanjutnya
    – Untuk meluruskan ajir gunakan tali sehingga diperoleh jarak tanam yang sama

    b. Lubang Tanam
    – Ukuran lubang tanam 60 x 60 x 60 cm pada akhir musim hujan
    – Berikan pupuk kandang yang dicampur dengan tanah (1:1) ditambah pupuk TSP 1-5 gram per lubang

    c. Tanam Bibit
    – Pada saat bibit kakao ditanam pohon naungan harus sudah tumbuh baik dan naungan sementara sudah berumur 1 tahun- Penanaman kakao dengan system tumpang sari tidak perlu naungan, misalnya tumpang sari dengan pohon kelapa- Bibit dipindahkan ke lapangan sesuai dengan jenisnya, untuk kakao Mulia ditanam setelah bibit umur 6 bulan, Kakao Lindak umur 4-5 bulan- Penanaman saat hujan sudah cukup dan persiapan naungan harus sempurna. Saat pemindahan sebaiknya bibit kakao tidak tengah membentuk daun muda (flush)
    d. Penyiraman dilakukan 2 kali sehari (pagi dan sore) sebanyak 2-5 liter/pohon

    e. Dibuat lubang pupuk disekitar tanaman dengan cara dikoak. Pupuk dimasukkan dalam lubang pupuk kemudian ditutup kembali. Dosis pupuk lihat dalam tabel di samping ini :Catatan: Akan lebih baik pemberian diselingi/ditambah SUPER NASA 1-2 kali/tahun dengan dosis 1 botol untuk + 200 tanaman. 1 botol SUPER NASA diencerkan dalam 2 liter (2000 ml) air dijadikan larutan induk. Kemudian setiap 1 liter air diberi 10 ml larutan induk tadi untuk penyiraman setiap pohon.

    Pengendalian Hama & Penyakit
    a. Ulat Kilan ( Hyposidea infixaria; Famili : Geometridae ),
    menyerang pada umur 2-4 bulan. Serangan berat mengakibatkan daun muda tinggal urat daunnya saja. Pengendalian dengan PESTONA dosis 5 – 10 cc / liter.
    b. Ulat Jaran / Kuda ( Dasychira inclusa, Familia : Limanthriidae ), ada bulu-bulu gatal pada bagian dorsalnya menyerupai bentuk bulu (rambut) pada leher kuda, terdapat pada marke 4 dan 5 berwarna putih atau hitam, sedang ulatnya coklat atau coklat kehitam-hitaman. Pengendalian dengan musuh alami predator Apanteles mendosa dan Carcelia spp, semprot PESTONA.
    c. Parasa lepida dan Ploneta diducta (Ulat Srengenge), serangan dilakukan silih berganti karena kedua species ini agak berbeda siklus hidup maupun cara meletakkan kokonnya, sehingga masa berkembangnya akan saling bergantian. Serangan tertinggi pada daun muda, kuncup yang merupakan pusat kehidupan dan bunga yang masih muda. Siklus hidup Ploneta diducta 1 bulan, Parasa lepida lebih panjang dari pada Ploneta diducta. Pengendalian dengan PESTONA.
    d. Kutu – kutuan ( Pseudococcus lilacinus ), kutu berwarna putih. Simbiosis dengan semut hitam. Gejala serangan : infeksi pada pangkal buah di tempat yang terlindung, selanjutnya perusakan ke bagian buah yang masih kecil, buah terhambat dan akhirnya mengering lalu mati. Pengendalian : tanaman terserang dipangkas lalu dibakar, dengan musuh alami predator; Scymus sp, Semut hitam, parasit Coccophagus pseudococci Natural BVR 30 gr/ 10 liter air atau PESTONA.
    e. Helopeltis antonii, menusukkan ovipositor untuk meletakkan telurnya ke dalam buah yang masih muda, jika tidak ada buah muda hama menyerang tunas dan pucuk daun muda. Serangga dewasa berwarna hitam, sedang dadanya merah, bagian menyerupai tanduk tampak lurus. Ciri serangan, kulit buah ada bercak-bercak hitam dan kering, pertumbuhan buah terhambat, buah kaku dan sangat keras serta jelek bentuknya dan buah kecil kering lalu mati. Pengendalian dilakukan dengan PESTONA dosis 5-10 cc / lt (pada buah terserang), hari pertama semprot stadia imago, hari ke-7 dilakukan ulangan pada telurnya dan pada hari ke-17 dilakukan terhadap nimfa yang masih hidup, sehingga pengendalian benar-benar efektif, sanitasi lahan, pembuangan buah terserang.
    f. Cacao Mot ( Ngengat Buah ), Acrocercops cranerella (Famili ; Lithocolletidae). Buah muda terserang hebat, warna kuning pucat, biji dalam buah tidak dapat mengembang dan lengket. Pengendalian : sanitasi lingkungan kebun, menyelubungi buah coklat dengan kantong plastik yang bagian bawahnya tetap terbuka (kondomisasi), pelepasan musuh alami semut hitam dan jamur antagonis Beauveria bassiana ( BVR) dengan cara disemprotkan, semprot dengan PESTONA.
    g. Penyakit Busuk Buah (Phytopthora palmivora), gejala serangan dari ujung buah atau pangkal buah nampak kecoklatan pada buah yang telah besar dan buah kecil akan langsung mati. Pengendalian : membuang buah terserang dan dibakar, pemangkasan teratur, semprot dengan Natural GLIO.
    h. Jamur Upas ( Upasia salmonicolor ), menyerang batang dan cabang. Pengendalian : kerok dan olesi batang atau cabang terserang dengan Natural GLIO+HORMONIK, pemangkasan teratur, serangan berlanjut dipotong lalu dibakar. Catatan : Jika pengendalian hama penyakit dengan menggunakan pestisida alami belum mengatasi dapat dipergunakan pestisida kimia yang dianjurkan. Agar penyemprotan pestisida kimia lebih merata dan tidak mudah hilang oleh air hujan tambahkan Perekat Perata AERO 810, dosis + 5 ml (1/2 tutup)/tangki.
    Panen
    Saat petik persiapkan rorak-rorak dan koordinasi pemetikan. Pemetikan dilakukan terhadap buah yang masak tetapi jangan terlalu masak. Potong tangkai buah dengan menyisakan 1/3 bagian tangkai buah. Pemetikan sampai pangkal buah akan merusak bantalan bunga sehingga pembentukan bunga terganggu dan jika hal ini dilakukan terus menerus, maka produksi buah akan menurun. Buah yang dipetik umur 5,5 – 6 bulan dari berbunga, warna kuning atau merah. Buah yang telah dipetik dimasukkan dalam karung dan dikumpulkan dekat rorak. Pemetikan dilakukan pada pagi hari dan pemecahan siang hari. Pemecahan buah dengan memukulkan pada batu hingga pecah. Kemudian biji dikeluarkan dan dimasukkan dalam karung, sedang kulit dimasukkan dalam rorak yang tersedia.
    Pengolahan Hasil
    Fermentasi, tahap awal pengolahan biji kakao. Bertujuan mempermudah menghilangkan pulp, menghilangkan daya tumbuh biji, merubah warna biji dan mendapatkan aroma dan cita rasa yang enak.Pengeringan, biji kakao yang telah difermentasi dikeringkan agar tidak terserang jamur dengan sinar matahari langsung (7-9 hari) atau dengan kompor pemanas suhu 60-700C (60-100 jam). Kadar air yang baik kurang dari 6 %.Sortasi, untuk mendapatkan ukuran tertentu dari biji kakao sesuai permintaan. Syarat mutu biji kakao adalah tidak terfermentasi maksimal 3 %, kadar air maksimal 7%, serangan hama penyakit maksimal 3 % dan bebas kotoran.

    Komentar oleh agus | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  11. Name of group: red eagle and white squad
    Name of Group Members:
    -Hendry : c1b009016
    -Tito Tinggarto : c1b009017
    -Agus Setiawan : c1boo9027
    -Sabam R.P : c1b009017

    TASK GROUP MAG
    About: COMMODITIES COCOA

    Characteristic cocoa plant as an agricultural commodity
    Cocoa-agricultural products as food
    Center for Agricultural Training (BBPP) Ketindan Malang East Java To get the added value of cocoa beans produced, there is need for efforts toward product diversification Kea. In the cocoa market situation is getting tougher by the presence of over-supply, the effort can be seen as a breakthrough in the face of market saturation of cocoa beans. Some European countries actually succeed in the field of food production of chocolate, without producing cocoa beans.
    Diversification of products includes cocoa for two purposes, namely;

    1.diversifikasi produce semi-finished material (paste, grease or powder)
    2. produce finished products (chocolate food products).

    Chocolate food products can be either chocolate or other foods that menggukanan coklat.Usaha material diversification is possible and feasible for farmers were introduced to the utilization of other cacao beans. Diversification efforts generate fats, powders and pastes it is still difficult, because in addition to requiring special equipment is also still faced with the uncertain marketing for small-scale production. Candy Making Chocolate There are two kinds of chocolate candy on the market, namely:
    Dark-chocolate candies (drak chocolate)
    Milk-chocolate candy (milk chocolate)

    In trade there are times when chocolate candies were given filler material such as peanuts, cashews, amount and others. A simple way of making chocolate candy as in sekema image below: Some of the deficiencies that may occur in the processed chocolate candy on a small scale (household) according Sulistyowati Yusianto (1992) are: a. Taste chocolate food processing results at home is not selesat processing in the factory. This is due to the basic ingredients of cocoa dipabrik usually a mixture of cocoa beans from several regions, and enriched with cocoa beans and flavorful taste of high quality. Another cause is the addition of several flavors (flavouring agent). b. Chocolate food at home is not as smooth as the result of processing that is processed at the plant. This is understandable because the refining process dipabrik using relatively sophisticated equipment. c. The texture of food prepared at home is different from that processed in the factory, because perbenaan the use of added fat. Fats used in chocolate is cocoa butter factory (cocoa butter) and oil seeds as a substitute tangkawang (substitution). Although the nature of this fat is easy to melt at body temperature but fragile nature. Meanwhile, white butter that is used at home is soft as cream (creamy). Making Use of Food Chocolate paste (powder) chocolate in a variety of recipes, especially cakes have long been recognized by the public. Until now, pasta or brown powder used is usually obtained from the market. Rarely encountered people who generate their own paste or powder that will be used to make the food brown.

    – Nature biolgis cocoa
    cocoa plants contain at least 16 elements commonly referred to harayang essential nutrient elements. Therefore, mediapertumbuhan plant (soil) and its environment must be able to supply nutrients that are absolutely necessary for growth. Based hasilanalisis cocoa plant tissues showed that about 200 kg N, 25 kg P, 300 kg K, and 140 kg Ca per hectare is needed to establish a framework dankanopi berbuah.Dalam cocoa before doing fertilizing plants must still consider kondisitanaman and the environment. In the cocoa plant that grows in the area of climate dengankondisi supportive environment (penaungnya good rainfall and good soil physical properties.

    Cocoa plants including perennials belonging to groups within groups caulofloris plants, ie plants that flower and fruit on the trunk and branches. This plant is on line amount can be divided into two parts, namely the vegetative covering the roots, stems and leaves and generative parts that include flowers and fruit.

    root
    The roots of the cocoa plants have roots riding (Radik primaria). Growth can reach 8 meters and 15 meters towards the side towards the bottom. Cocoa is a vegetatively propagated at the beginning of root growth is not form-riding, but the roots of the fibers are numerous. Having grown plants will form roots of two. Having grown plants will form roots that resemble two-riding roots. In the sprouts that have been aged 1-2 weeks are the roots of the branches (Radik lateralis), which is where the growth of the roots of the hair (Fibrilla) with considerable amounts. At the end of the roots have root hairs that are protected by the root cap (Calyptra). This root hairs that serve to absorb the solution and salts the soil. Diameter of only 10 micro root hair and a maximum length of only 1 millimeter.

    Stem
    Earlier growth of cocoa plants propagated by seeds will form the main trunk before growing primary branches. Location of primary growth of branches called jorquette, with the ideal height of 1.2 to 1.5 meters from ground level and jorquette is not present in cocoa are vegetatively propagated.
    In terms of growth, the branches of the cacao plant grows towards the top and sides. Branches that grow towards the top called Orthotrop branches and branches that grow toward the side called Plagiotrop. Of the stem and the two types of branches are often covered with shoots of water (Chupon) that absorb energy, so that if left to grow will reduce flowering and fruiting (Siregar et al., 1989).
    Interest
    Flowers cocoa classified as perfect flowers, consisting of leaf sheath (Calyx) as much as 5 pieces and stamens (Androecium) accounted for 10 strands. Flower diameter 1.5 centimeters. Flowers supported by a long flower stalk 2-4 inches (Siregar et al., 1989).
    Flowering is cauliflora and ramiflora cocoa, which means the flowers and fruit grow attached to the trunk or branches, where there is interest only until the secondary branches (Ginting, 1975). Cacao plants under normal circumstances can produce flowers 6000-10000 per year but only about five percent that can be a fruit.Fruit
    The fruit of the cocoa fruit flesh buni which seeds are soft. Rind has ten grooves and thickness 1-2 centimeters (Siregar et al., 1989).
    The shape, size and color of the cocoa fruit variety and length is about 10-30 centimeters, generally there are three kinds of fruit color cocoa, which is light green to dark green, when young and become yellow when ripe, red color and a mixture of red and green. This fruit will mature 5-6 months after pollination. Young fruit whose size is less than 10 centimeters called cherelle (nipple). The fruit is often experienced drying (cherellewilt) as a specific symptom of the cocoa crop. Symptoms thinning so-called physiological effect, namely the existence of physiological processes that cause terhanbatnya channeling nutrients that support the growth of young fruit. Symptoms may also be due to competition between vegetative and generative energy or because of the reduction in hormones needed for pertumbuhahn young fruit.
    Cocoa beans have no future so dormasi seed storage for seeds with a long time does not allow. These seeds are covered by a layer of soft and sweet, if it has been cooked or micilage pulp layer. This pulp can inhibit seed germination and therefore that will be used to avoid damage from which the seed if the pulp is not removed then the storage will occur in the fermentation process so that it can merukkan seeds (Suharjo and Butar-butar, 1979).

    Ground
    For growing cacao plants require soils that have adequate organ ingredients, topsoil deep to help root growth, good physical properties such as loose soil structure is also a good drainage system. The ideal soil pH range between 6-7 (Suhardjo and Butar-butar, 1979). According Situmorang (1973) of land have a close relationship with the cocoa plant root system, because the cocoa plant roots are very shallow and almost 80% of the cocoa plant roots in a circle of 15 cm from the ground, so to get a good growth of cocoa plants require loose soil structure that root development is not hampered. Next Tjasadiharja (1980) argues, a good root development determines the number and distribution of the roots which then serves as an organ of absorption of nutrients from the soil. Cocoa plants require water surface land within. The surface of the shallow ground water causes shallow roots, so plant growth is less strong (Anonymous, 1988).

    Effect of Season
    The emergence of catastrophic weather changes that occur because of its impact began to worry for cocoa farmers. Weather that does not support the process of flowering and fruiting of coffee began to be seen with the many flowers that fall off and fail to fruit. This condition is based on the Assessed field workers harvest coffee can lead to failure to achieve 70% – 75% more than 2010 years ago. Natural environment for the cocoa plant is a tropical forest, thus rainfall, temperature, humidity, light intensity and wind is a factor limiting the spread of cocoa (Siregar et al., 1989). Cocoa plants can grow well at an altitude of 000-600 meters above sea level, with the spread covers 20 ˚ and 20 ˚ N latitude. An ideal area for growth ranged between 10 ˚ and 10 ˚ N latitude.
    Coffee in West Lampung regency has a very big role on the economy of the community. This can be seen from its contribution to GDP of West Lampung reaches over 40% of the total. Furthermore, due to the coffee crop failed in 2011, the level of possible losses that could reach 509 billion with the assumption of production in 2011 declined to about 11,708 tons to 14,050 tons with an average price of 15,000 rupiah coffee. Meanwhile, when referring to the value of GDP (ADHB) of West Lampung non oil and gas in 2009 is equal to 2,527,733,190,000 dollars, then the loss rate is equivalent to 20.15 percent of the total GDP of West Lampung. This means, of West Lampung regency threatened economy declined by 20 per cent more coffee due to crop failure that occurred in 2011 assuming the role of all sectors of West Lampung GRDP forming moves remain the same as in 2009.Selain, the tenure which reached 60% of the total area cultivation lead to commodity-based society will be necessary to do anticipate a food crisis due to the decrease of purchasing power of coffee farmers.
    From this, West Lampung District held a special coordination meeting failed to anticipate the coffee harvest. This is because, in case of crop failure is possible coffee can affect people’s economic decline (decline in purchasing power) during the harvest season 2011 to 2012 coffee harvest seasons (12 months). Food reserve readiness, social assistance and programs the coffee crop failed coping mechanisms need to be prepared. The strategy pursued by the Government of West Lampung District of anticipatory strategies to prepare the community’s readiness to face this difficult time.

    Company forms

    Address Company Name Company Type of Production
    CV. Adi Karya Kirana DSM-A36 Blk KUTA – BALI, Bali Indonesia
    Tel: 0361-769748
    Fax: 0361-769748
    CP: Mr.. Andreas Haryani Sales Results Agra (Cocoa)
    CV. Rejeki Lumbung Jl. Milky Way 57 126 VII No.3A RT.003/RW.020 Surakarta
    Tel: 62816678853
    CP: Himawan Sri Warsito Sells Cocoa
    PT. Panca Arga Adiwiyata Ds. / Ex. Sawangan Kec. Jeruklegi Kab. Cilacap 53,252 –
    PT. Panca Arga Adiwiyata Ds. / Ex. Cangak Kec. Bodeh Kab. Pemalang 52 365 –
    PT. Pagilaran Ds. / Ex. Teak Simbang Kec. Write Kab. Stem
    Tel: 0852-850394 –
    PT. Clumps Sari Antan Ds. / Ex. Sido Kumpul Kec. Patean Kab. Kendal 51 364
    Tel: 082-2935906 –
    PT. Clumps Sari Antan 4 Ds. / Ex. Darma Kradenan Kec. Ajibarang, Banyumas –
    PT. Clumps Sari Antan I Ds. / Ex. Kutasari Kec. Cipari Kab. Cilacap 53,262
    Tel: 0280-621286 –
    PT. Sources Harto II Ds. / Ex. Kaligarang Kec. Rivet Kab. Jepara 59 454
    Tel: +62-291-579001 –
    Clumps Sari Antan, PT Ds. / Ex. Darma Kradenan excl. Ajibarang, Kab. Banyumas 53 163 –
    PT. Natural Resources Nusa Permai Jl. Sisingamangaraja No.51/49
    Tel: 32 413 –
    PT. Build Agam Permai Jl. Gg Kabun door. No jasmine. 1 Bukit Tinggi
    Tel: 22 706 –
    PT. Sari host Agam Regency Dry Cocoa
    PT. Tama Multi Mulya Jl. Proclamation No.. 48 Padang
    Tel: 27 865 –
    PT. Mulya Multitima Agam Regency Dry Cocoa
    PT Arta Temple Village / Ex. Kec sycophancy. Batu Ampar Tanah Laut –
    PT Anugrah Lunik Village / Ex. Kec sycophancy. Batu Ampar Tanah Laut –
    PTPN VII (Persero) Act SWEET LOVE Ogan Ilir Komering Cocoa
    Company Name
    PT. Citra Tani Main Village / Ex. Pantek Kec. Toho Pontianak –
    PT. Mardian Wira Raya Jl. Raya Village area of 297 km / Ex. Covering an area of district. Covering an area of Kab. Bengkayang –
    PT. Prima Daya Sakti Unggul Jl. KP. Tendean No. 159 Banjarmasin Cocoa
    PT. Budhi Data jl. Village 2.5 km / Ex Lubuk Treasurer Kec. Rokan IV Koto Cocoa
    PT. Andre Sulawesi Kab. Enrekang Trade Chocolate
    PT. Cargill Indonesia Kab. Enrekang Processed Chocolate
    PT Jaya Utama Raya Jl. Main Raya No. Pampang. 33, Makassar
    Jl. Main Raya No. Pampang. 33, Makassar Cocoa
    PT Karya Lawewe Jaya Jl. Veteran No. 55 Palopo
    Jl. Veteran No. 55 Palopo –
    PT. Matur Sintong Indah Jl. Dr Ratulangi, North Wara, Luwu, South Sulawesi –
    PT.Matur Sintong Indah Kab. Luwu
    Kab. Luwu Trade Cocoa
    PT. Tirta Kencana Mannannungang Kab. Bone
    Kab. Bone Cocoa

    -Variation of market
    1. Making Chocolate Candies
    There are two kinds of chocolate candy on the market, which is a dark chocolate candy (drak chocolate) and chocolate milk (milk chocolate). In trade there are times when chocolate candies were given filler material such as peanuts, cashews, amount and others.

    2. Food Preparation Chocolate
    Use paste (powder) chocolate in a variety of recipes, especially cakes have long been recognized by the public. Until now, pasta or brown powder used is usually obtained from the market. Rarely encountered people who generate their own paste or powder that will be used to make the food brown.

    – Government involvement
    government policies in the cocoa commodity
    To support the national development policy in the implementation of regional autonomy in
    effective and efficient are needed strengthening regional development planning
    comprehensive and integrated. Therefore, the development policies outlined in the Pattern
    Basic Regional Development or Long-Term Regional Development Plan should
    formulated by taking into account the condition, potential, problems and real needs
    region as well as public aspirations to grow and develop in the area, as well as policy
    both contained in the National Long Term Development Plan (RPJP) National
    and the Medium Term Development Plan (Development Plan) National. Directions and National Development Goals
    Long-term development plan drawn up to achieve development goals
    as stated in the Preamble to the 1945 and refers to the direction of development
    as follows:
    1. Economic Development is directed to the stabilization of the national economic system to
    promote the progress of the nation with the following characteristics.
    o The economy is structured as a joint effort based on the principle of the family.
    o Branches of production which is important for the country and serving the people
    much controlled by the state.
    Preparation of Primary Commodity Map Sector Primary, and
    Market Opportunity Assessment and Investment Opportunities in Indonesia
    2 Commodities Cocoa
    o Earth’s water and natural resources contained therein controlled by the state and
    used for the greatest prosperity of the people.
    o The national economy is organized based on the principle of economic democracy
    with the principles of togetherness, efficiency with justice, sustainability,
    environment, independence, and maintain a balance of progress and unity
    national economy.
    2. The implementation of the overall development as well as consideration for the rights of citizens
    obligation to participate in the development.
    3. In order to improve implementation of development, the implementation of government
    regions based on broad autonomy. The implementation of autonomy in the area sought
    to encourage community participation in development in order
    strengthen the unity and integrity.
    In order to develop the potential of the commodity in the primary sector, it needs to be based
    on the outline of the policies that apply nationally, namely the Development Policy
    National. Policy Direction of the National Development Plan contained in one
    Long Term Development (RPJP) National, where RPJP prepared as the elaboration of
    purpose of the establishment of the State of Indonesia is listed in the Preamble
    Act of 1945 in the form of a vision, mission and direction of national development.
    Associated with excavation and investment potential in the primary sector, mentioned in section
    General Conditions RPJP 2005 – 2025 that gradually, the economic structure changed from
    previously dominated by traditional farming into a more modern direction of economic activity
    by driving the industrial sector. Indicating an increase non-oil exports
    ability to produce products and the competitiveness of Indonesian products to the product
    other countries increased rapidly. Even in the second half of the 80s, its structure changes
    export of which was originally dominated by oil and gas exports to export is dominated by
    non-oil exports. Therefore the development potential of the primary sector is expected
    can provide a significant contribution in encouraging the growth of exports
    non-oil. These sectors are the primary related to the fisheries sector include,
    agriculture, livestock, and mining.
    In the General Conditions RPJP 2005 – 2025 also mentioned that the use of energy in
    Indonesia has progressed quite rapidly, so the problem of energy shortage in
    the future would be anticipated to reduce energy dependence on
    oil and increase the contribution of coal and other energy sources in use
    Preparation of Primary Commodity Map Sector Primary, and
    Market Opportunity Assessment and Investment Opportunities in Indonesia
    Commodity II – 3
    energy nationally. While economic development in the next 20 years
    directed at achieving the main objectives as follows.
    o The founding of a solid economic structure in which agriculture (in the broad sense) and
    mining became the basis of economic activity that produces products in
    efficient and modern manufacturing industries are globally competitive into the motor
    driving the economy, and services become the glue of economic resilience.
    o Revenue per capita in 2025 reached about U.S. $ 6,000 level
    equalization is relatively good and poor population of not more than 5 percent.
    o food self-sufficiency can be maintained at safe levels and the nutritional quality of the
    instruments and the availability of adequate food security for the household level.
    In relation to development and investment in the primary sector in the target
    principal stated that:

    1. Development-oriented economy and global competitiveness through transformation
    stages of comparative advantage-based economy of natural resource abundant
    a competitive economy that berkeunggulan.

    2. Improved efficiency, modernization, and value-added activities, especially the primary sector
    agriculture and mining in the broad sense are encouraged to compete in local markets
    and internationally and to strengthen national production base.

    3. Global competitiveness, the economy improved by developing a network pattern
    clump industry (industrial cluster) as its foundation, based on the 3 (three) basic principles:
    o Development of value-added chain and the main innovation is the choice of
    direction of the pattern of development set out in a given period;
    o Strengthening (expansion and deepening) the structure of the industry by building clumps
    antarindustri linkages between industry and economic activity associated with each
    (Primary and tertiary sectors, SMEs and foreign investment companies);
    o Development of micro-economic foundation (local) in order to materialize the business environment
    conducive through the provision of various infrastructure capacity building collective
    (Technology, quality, capacity building of manpower and physical infrastructure) and
    strengthening of economic institutions that can ensure that the increased interaction,
    productivity, and innovation that occurs through healthy competition, can significantly
    enhance the competitiveness of the economy in a sustainable manner.

    4. With a comparative advantage as a large country with a population of insight,
    ability, and creative high, and has a broad landscape and
    wealth of natural resources, industrial base competitive advantage in 20 years
    developed based on the next 3 (three) main principles, namely:
    Preparation of Primary Commodity Map Sector Primary, and
    Market Opportunity Assessment and Investment Opportunities in Indonesia
    II – 4 Cocoa Commodity
    o The development of industries that process natural resources in an efficient and rational,
    taking into account the carrying capacity;
    o Development of industry that strengthen the capacity and network building
    interaction, communication, and information for the benefit of both domestic and in
    dealing with the dynamics of globalization, and
    o Development of industrial integration and strengthening linkages structure antarindustri
    forward.
    With these principles, the focus of industrial development in the next 20 years
    directed at the 4 (four) main pillars,
    Industrial agriculture-based and marine; 
    transport industry; 
    information technology industry and telecommunications equipment (telematics), and 
    manufacturing industrial base and strategic potential for strengthening the competitiveness 
    industry forward.

    5. Improved efficiency, modernization, and value-added agricultural sectors in the broad sense
    managed by a dynamic agribusiness development and efficient, involving
    active participation of farmers and fishermen.

    6. Trade and investment are developed to be able to support the strengthening of competitiveness
    globally. Investments are directed to support the realization of economic growth
    high enough in a sustainable and quality by improving the investment climate that
    conducive and competitive, and aligned with a focus on increasing competitiveness
    national economy.

    7. The role of effective government and the optimum is realized as a facilitator, regulator,
    as well as a catalyst for development in various levels of efficiency and effectiveness
    public services, the creation of a conducive business environment and competitiveness, and
    safeguarding the sustainability of the market mechanism.

    8. Developing the capacity of local governments continue to be improved through increased
    capacity of local governments and government institutional capacity building
    regional capacity building of local government finances, including efforts to increase
    partnerships with public and private sectors in financing regional development
    enhanced; strengthening of the legislature.

    9. Utilization of renewable natural resources, such as forests, agriculture, fisheries,
    and the waters made a rational, optimal, and efficient, by utilizing
    all functions and benefits in a balanced manner and attention to carrying capacity and
    recover their natural ability. Management of renewable natural resources, which currently has
    are in critical condition, is directed at efforts to rehabilitate and restore
    Preparation of Primary Commodity Map Sector Primary, and
    Market Opportunity Assessment and Investment Opportunities in Indonesia
    carrying capacity, and subsequently directed at the utilization of intangible aspects
    such services so that no further environmental damage and eliminate
    ability as a capital for the management of sustainable development. Result
    or income derived from the utilization of renewable natural resources are directed
    to be reinvested in order to foster recovery, rehabilitation,
    and provisioning for the benefit of present and future generations.
    10. Natural resources are not renewable, such as mining, minerals and resources
    managed in a sustainable energy by not consume directly, but rather
    treat it as input for subsequent production processes that can
    produce the optimal added value. The output is directed to serve as
    cumulative capital. Another alternative to the use of which was offset by the effort
    reclamation and the search for alternative sources or substitutes renewable materials and
    more environmentally friendly

    11. The effectiveness of the utilization of natural resources aimed at increasing value-added
    products of natural resources.

    12. Special attention is given to the utilization of natural resources still have
    great potential to be developed, such as marine resources, resulting in
    balance in the utilization of natural resources that exists between land and ocean.
    Given the scope and prospects of marine resources are very large, then the direction
    utilization through multi-sectoral approach in order to minimize
    conflict and the sustainability of these resources is maintained sustainability.

    13. Natural resources are developed and utilized with due regard to diversity
    types of existing natural resources in each region in order to improve
    welfare of local communities, develop a strategic and fast-growing region, and
    strengthen local capacity and commitment to support the development
    sustainable. Increased participation of the importance of resource utilization
    natural resources and the environment is done through the empowerment of various
    social and economic institutions at the local level, as well as the recognition of customary rights and
    customary over natural resources, including for local governments.

    14. Economic development activities aimed at making environmentally friendly
    pollution and environmental degradation can be controlled, and directed all
    on developing a more economic use of environmental services. Recovery and
    prioritized rehabilitation of the environmental conditions in an effort to improve
    capacity of the environment in sustainable development.
    Preparation of Primary Commodity Map Sector Primary, and
    Market Opportunity Assessment and Investment Opportunities in Indonesia

    II – 6 Cocoa Commodity
    2.1.2 Autonomy
    In the era of regional autonomy, with the Law on Regional Government which has
    updated by Law No. 32 of 2004 on Regional Governance
    explained that the matters concerning the authority of provincial governments
    is a scale business in the province, which included:
    a. Planning and development control
    b. Planning, utilization and supervision of spatial
    c. Control environment
    d. Investment administration services, including cross-county / city.
    In setting the affairs of government, the provincial government should be oriented
    increase in public welfare in accordance with the conditions, uniqueness, and potential seed
    areas concerned.
    Local involvement in determining policies relating to
    development in the region who work together towards national development
    Overall reflected in the Government Regulation no. 25 of 2000 on the Division
    Authority of the Government and the Provinces as Autonomous Regions.
    In the primary sector development, including the Provincial Government has the authority
    as follows:
    1. Agriculture
    a. Determination of minimum service standards in the field of agriculture which must be implemented
    by Regency / City.
    b. Determination of standard nursery / seed farm.
    c. Providing education and training of human resources of agricultural officers
    functional technical, vocational and secondary vocational education and training.
    d. Promotion of export of agricultural commodities provincial superior.
    e. Provision of support for cooperation between the District / City in agriculture.
    f. Arrangements and implementation of pest prevention and infectious disease outbreaks in
    agriculture across Districts / Municipalities.
    g. Setting the use of agricultural seeds.
    h. Determination of integrated agricultural region based on agreement with
    District / City.
    i. Implementation of disease investigation in the field of agriculture across Regency / City;
    j. Providing support for eradication of plant pests control, pest
    and diseases in agriculture.
    Preparation of Primary Commodity Map Sector Primary, and
    Market Opportunity Assessment and Investment Opportunities in Indonesia

    Commodity II – 7
    k. Setting the use of irrigation water.
    l. Monitoring, forecasting and control and prevention of explosion organisms
    plant pests and diseases in agriculture.
    2. Plantation Field
    a. Guidelines for the implementation of an inventory and mapping of the garden.
    b. Implementation of plantation establishment and cross-zoning
    District / City.
    c. Preparation of zoning, design, control of land and the field of primary industry
    plantation across Districts / Municipalities.
    d. Macro planning plantation cross District / City.
    e. Implementation of the plantation business licensing lintasKabupaten / City
    f. Germination supervision, fertilizers, pesticides, tools and machinery in the plantation.
    g. Of observation, forecasting plant pests and organisms
    integrated pest management of plantation crops.
    h. Implementation and supervision of rehabilitation, reclamation, silviculture systems,
    cultivation, and processing.
    i. Provision of support for providing education and technical training, research
    plantation and development of applied field
    3. Capital Investment
    Cooperating in the field of investment with the District and the City.
    While the authority of the Central Government in development-related sectors
    primary is:
    1. Agriculture
    a. Arrangement income or expenditure seeds / seedlings and establishment of guidelines for
    determination of standard nursery / hatchery farm.
    b. Regulation and supervision of production, distribution, use and destruction
    pesticides and other agricultural chemicals, animal drugs, vaccines, sera, antigens, cement
    and frozen cattle embryos.
    c. Determination of the standard release and withdrawal of varieties of agricultural commodities.
    d. Determination of norms and standards for procurement, management, and distribution of foodstuffs.
    e. The standards and procedures for quality testing of vegetable and animal foodstuffs.
    f. Determination of technical norms and standards of agricultural pest eradication.
    Preparation of Primary Commodity Map Sector Primary, and
    Market Opportunity Assessment and Investment Opportunities in Indonesia

    II – 8 Cocoa Commodity
    2. Plantation field, including:
    a. Determination of criteria and standards for the maintenance of the plantation.
    b. Macro planning of forestry and plantations, as well as the general pattern
    land rehabilitation, soil conservation, and preparation of zoning, design,
    control of land, plantation and primary industries.
    c. Determination of criteria and standards of production, processing, quality control, marketing
    and distribution of estates, including seed, fertilizer and pesticide plants
    plantation.
    d. Determination of criteria and standards of business licensing / business estates.
    e. Determination of criteria and standards covering the management of the management plan,
    utilization, maintenance, supervision and control of the plantation.
    f. Determination of criteria and standards for the conservation of natural resources and ecosystem
    which includes the protection, preservation and sustainable use of field
    plantation.
    g. Determination of criteria and standards and implementation of security and
    plantation area of disaster management.
    3. Capital Investment
    Licensing and control tech venture capital investment for strategic
    that have a high degree of sophistication and high-risk in its application,
    including weapons, nuclear and genetic engineering.

    Komentar oleh hendri | Agustus 12, 2011 | Balas

  12. TUGAS KELOMPOK 2
    5 ORANG
    MANAJEMEN-G
    NAMA : ARNA MEGA SARI SIMARMATA (C1B010099)
    SRI MARDIANTI (C1B010129)
    MEMBAHAS KOMODITAS KAKAO

    Komentar oleh Arna Mega Sari Simarmata | Oktober 25, 2011 | Balas

  13. TUGAS KELOMPOK 4
    5 Orang
    Nama : Febby Nanda Utami C1B010110
    Nike Dwi Ardianti C1B008148
    Zaki Aprifals C1B010119
    Irwandi C1B010101
    Tan Reza
    Membahas Komoditas Kelapa Sawit

    Nanda dkk. Kelompok lain silahkan cari komoditi lain di blog ini, petunjuk tentang soal akan diunggah secepatnya. Seluruh infomrmasi yg ada pada halaman ini silahkan dicetak, karena informasi itu penting. Sukses.

    Komentar oleh febby nanda utami (@febbynanda) | Oktober 25, 2011 | Balas

  14. TUGAS KELOMPOK 6
    4 orang
    Desfa Nabillah C1B010108
    Citra Alvionita sinaga C1B010091
    Yoga C1B010130
    Supriyono C1B010113
    Membahas komoditas Karet

    Komentar oleh Desfa Nabillah | Oktober 25, 2011 | Balas

  15. TUGAS KELOMPOK 3
    5 ORANG
    MANAJEMEN-G
    NAMA : NURRAHMA SARI PUTRI (C1B009117)
    GUNANDA
    RIZKI
    SYARIF
    JOHN
    MEMBAHAS KOMODITAS KELAPA

    Komentar oleh Nurrahma Sari Putri | Oktober 26, 2011 | Balas

  16. Selamat malam,

    Pak ini tugas kelompok I MAG kelas G 2010 yang terdiri dari
    1. C1B010103 Melan Deviana
    2. C1B010109 Feny Tialonawarmi
    3. C1B010120 Gusnita Ariyani
    4. C1B010121 Anugrah Akbar
    5. C1B010124 Dian Sryadi Ginting

    Kami memilih kedelai sebagai pembahasan kelompok kami

    Terima kasih.

    Komentar oleh Feny Tialonawarmi | Oktober 26, 2011 | Balas

  17. selamat mlm ..

    kelompok 5 mag kelas G 5 org
    1. Mhd. Azrin
    2. hannas Afrilyan Akbar
    3. Anita Agustina A
    4. Safna Purnawan
    5.

    maaf anggota blm lgkp krna lupa namanya pak,, dan no mahasisiwa nya.. nanti di perbaiki lg,,
    kelompok kami memilih kelapa pak.
    terima kasih

    Komentar oleh mhd. azrin | Oktober 26, 2011 | Balas

  18. TUGAS KELOMPOK 7

    Anggota Kelompok :
    Dian Mala Fithriani Aira
    Nuranice
    Rima
    Nurmawan

    Maaf Sebelumnya pak,dikarenakan komoditas yang saya baca di Blog bapak rata-rata sudah dipilih dengan kelompok lain.Maka saya mewakili dari anggota kelompok membahas komoditas Teh

    Komentar oleh Dian Mala Fithriani Aira | Oktober 30, 2011 | Balas

  19. Maaf sebelumnya Pak jo,,
    RALAT TUGAS KELOMPOK 7

    Anggota Kelompok :
    Dian Mala Fithriani Aira
    Nuranice
    Rima
    Nurmawan

    *KOMODITAS “JERUK”

    Komentar oleh Dian Mala Fithriani Aira | Oktober 30, 2011 | Balas

  20. maaf sebelum nya pak .. karena komoditas kelapa sudah ada,, maka kami kelompok 5 mengganti dg komoditas JAGUNG…
    anggota kelompok :
    1. Mhd.Azrin (c1b010128)
    2. Anita Agustina S (c1b010114)
    3. Hannas Afrilyan A (c1b010123)
    4. Safna Purnawan (c1b010113)
    5. Irwan Gutara (c1b0106100)

    MANAJEMEN KELAS G 2010

    MAKASIH PAK

    Komentar oleh mhd. azrin | Oktober 31, 2011 | Balas

  21. TUGAS KELOMPOK 3
    5 ORANG
    MANAJEMEN-G
    NAMA : NURRAHMA SARI PUTRI (C1B009117)
    GUNANDA
    RIZKI
    SYARIF
    Jone R. Hutauruk

    MEMBAHAS KOMODITAS KELAPA

    Komentar oleh Jone R. Hutauruk | November 12, 2011 | Balas

  22. Selamat sore pak. Kami dari kelompok IV yang membahas tentang komoditas kelapa sawit, telah mengirimkan tugas ke e-mail bapak. Terimakasih

    Komentar oleh febby nanda utami (@febbynanda) | November 14, 2011 | Balas

  23. selamat malam pak
    kami dari kelompok 2 membahas komoditas kakao sudah mengirim tugas tersebut lewat e-mail bapak
    terimakasih pakl

    Komentar oleh Arna Mega Sari | November 14, 2011 | Balas

  24. kami kelompok 5 yg membahas jagung sudah mengirimkan tugas k email bpak,,, mkasih pak

    Komentar oleh mhd azrin | November 14, 2011 | Balas

  25. sore pak Tugas kelompok 7 sdh di kirim ke e-mail bapak
    trima kasih

    Komentar oleh Muhammad Nur Mawan | November 15, 2011 | Balas

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    Komentar oleh vuelos china | Februari 28, 2013 | Balas

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    Komentar oleh cleaning business | April 23, 2013 | Balas

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    Komentar oleh forex trading | Agustus 9, 2014 | Balas


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